Ain

The Department was formed from the former provinces of Bresse, Bugey, Valromey, Gex and the Principality of Dombes, acquired successively by the Bourbons to the Crown of France. These provinces were included in the part of Gaul that the Romans called Celtic. The Segusiens or Sebusiens formed the main population, and Forum Segusianorum occupied, said to be the location where later Bourg is high. The Ambarri, another Celtic tribe, have only left trace of their existence, and the names of Ambérieux or Ambronay recall still today their recollection.

Invasion of the Helvetii brought the Romans in these regions, and it is near Trévoux Caesar defeated the invaders. The country of the Sebusiens and the Ambarri successively became part of the Germania Superior under Augustus, the large-Séquanaise under Constantine, and Lyonnaise I under Honorius. The Valromey (vallis romana), in the Township of Champagne, recalls by name even this long occupation by the Romans.

In the fifth century, the Burgundians captured this part of Gaul, but they were soon subjected by the Franks, and their territory sometimes became part of the Kingdom of Orléans and sometimes the Kingdom of Metz. When the carlovingien empire came to dissolve, it saw the name of Bressia, which then applied to the territory located in the basin of the Ain and included the pagus Dombensis, the country of Dombes. After the death of Charles the Chauve, these lands became part of the kingdoms of cis-jurane and transjurane Burgundy, then they were included in the empire of Germany. Then the local lords formed independent, and thus formed the sireries of Baugé, to Coligny, of Thoire, Villars. The Lords of Baugé became the real Lords of Bresse; Baugé, today Bâgé-le-Châtel, was their capital and their suzerainty extended from the Seille at the n., until the Rhône to the S. The Dombes specifically belonged to the Lords of Villars, who also owned a portion of the Bugey bottom. The Revermont and the northern part of the Bugey recognized the authority of the Lords of Coligny. Finally the pays de Gex and Southeast of Bugey obey the Lords of Maurienne, masters of the Savoie. In 1272, a marriage passed the property of the Lords of Baugé in the House of Savoy, which soon began to acquire all the Bugey. It was then that town became the capital of Bresse at the expense of Baugé which ceased to decrease. On the other hand, in the fourteenth century, Humbert VII, Lord of Villars and of Thoire, ceded to the Duke of Bourbon-Beaujeu the châtellenies of Trévoux, Ambérieux and Chandra, who formed the Principality of Dombes.

In 1535, François Ier, King of France, wanting to destroy the House of Savoy, captured the countries of Gex, Valromey Bugey and Bresse, but he was forced to make the Treaty of Cambrai. In 1601, Henri IV forced the Duke of Savoy to conclude the Treaty of Lyon, by which he gave him the Bresse, the Gex country and Bugey in Exchange to the marquisate of Saluees. This new frontier allowed Henri IV to give hand "to its allies and good friends" the Swiss. This acquisition was not precious only under the report of the territories; It was again, because she dota the France of a solid population, whose patriotism has never wavered.

The Dombes, acquired a first time under François Ier, during the confiscation of the property of the Constable of Bourbon, was made by Charles IX to the branch of Montpensier. It was part of the dowry of Marie de Bourbon, married to the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIII. From this marriage was born a daughter, la grande Mademoiselle, who gave the Dombes to the Duke of Maine, natural son of Louis XIV. The second son of the ceded to Louis XV, in 1761, in Exchange for the Duchy of Gisors.

These various portions of territory were part of the Government of Burgundy until 1790. At that time, they became the current Department which includes almost in full.

The Ain Department is one of the most quiet, one of the most modest, arguably one of the most obscure of the France. It is distinguished by its wealth, nor by its agriculture, nor by its industry; It has no cities and seems, like rivers, valleys, its inhabitants, attracted whole to Lyon, the Southeast due capital; It is remarkable by its geographical position and its natural beauties. Framed between the Saône, Rhône, Jura, it touches to the Switzerland and Savoy, which its population recalls simple and rough, mores as its mountains appear to the. first waves, the first Conference of the Alps.

This Department offers two aspects and two distinct parts: the eastern part or Bugey and the Gex country, which forms the arrondissements of Belley, the western part, Nantua and Gex, and Bresse and the bombs, which contains the boroughs of Bourg and Trévoux. The first, between the Ain and Jura, is very mountainous; It occupies the positions the highest and thickest of the Jura. Most of this country is composed of mountain peaks, bald, infertile, and valleys deep, Rocky Mountain, crossed by torrents. There's more rough landscapes, the most spirited waters, the wildest gorges. Valleys contain excellent pasture; the slopes of the hills are planted with vines; forests occupy the flanks of the mountains; but Earth is not enough there to the food of the inhabitants.

The almost flat area between the Ain and Saone, consists of low plateaus of swampy heaths, plains who, from the hills of the Revermont, first Conference of the Jura to the Saône will continuously in lowering. The floor is made of a dense, cold clay, rebel to culture, which does not absorb water and seems even hold to the surface; also, in the winter, most of the land remain flooded, and villages are completely enveloped by water; Finally it forms very many ponds which are more than 20 000 hectares and today working to dry out to agriculture. With its swamps, its immense Plains, its heavy, foggy atmosphere, its soil alternately flooded or cracked by the Sun, its poor villages, thatched covered farms, this country was once one of the saddest parts of the France. But today, thanks to railways, major works were undertaken and partly transformed it.

Geography

The Ain Department is one of the most quiet, one of the most modest, arguably one of the most obscure of the France. It is distinguished by its wealth, nor by its agriculture, nor by its industry; It has no cities and seems, like rivers, valleys, its inhabitants, attracted whole to Lyon, the Southeast due capital; It is remarkable by its geographical position and its natural beauties. Framed between the Saône and the Rhône, the Jura, it touches to the Switzerland and Savoy, its people remember simple and rough, mores as its mountains seem the first ripples, the first Conference of the Alps.

This Department offers two aspects and two distinct parts: the eastern part or Bugey and the Gex country, which forms the arrondissements of Belley, the western part, Nantua and Gex, and Bresse and the bombs, which contains the boroughs of Bourg and Trévoux. The first, between the Ain and Jura, is very mountainous; It occupies the positions the highest and thickest of the Jura. Most of this country is composed of mountain peaks, bald, infertile, and valleys deep, Rocky Mountain, crossed by torrents. There's more rough landscapes, the most spirited waters, the wildest gorges. Valleys contain excellent pasture; the slopes of the hills are planted with vines; forests occupy the flanks of the mountains; but Earth is not enough there to the food of the inhabitants.

The almost flat area between the Ain and Saone, consists of low plateaus of swampy heaths, plains who, from the hills of the Revermont, first Conference of the Jura to the Saône will continuously in lowering. The floor is made of a dense, cold clay, rebel to culture, which does not absorb water and seems even hold to the surface; also, in the winter, most of the land remain flooded, and villages are completely enveloped by water; Finally it forms very many ponds which are more than 20 000 hectares and today working to dry out to agriculture. With its swamps, its immense Plains, its heavy, foggy atmosphere, its soil alternately flooded or cracked by the Sun, its poor villages, thatched covered farms, this country was once one of the saddest parts of the France. But today, thanks to railways, major works were undertaken and partly transformed it.

Orography hydrography

Room of the guards of the castle of the Flecherele territory of the Ain Department belongs to the southernmost part of the chain of the Jura. Chains or foothills is posting cover most of the country, descend westward in stages, and are thus by their folding the valleys of Biel, the Seille, of Siran, of Furan, of the Albarine, etc. Beyond the Suran or Ceyseriat draws the plateau of marshy Bresse, whose small hills to the Saône waters of the Reyssouze, the Veyle and the Chalaronne.

The highlights of these contre-forts are the Crêt de la Neige (1724 metres), the Reculet de Thoiry (1720 m), Mont-Credo (1690 m), the Gcix Colombier (1689 meters), Chakt de Retord (1320 m), the order of Planadjat (1237 m).

The entire Ain Department is part of the Rhône basin.

Rhone takes birth in Switzerland, in France over Pougny, and first serves as a boundary between the Department of Ain and the Savoie during 60 km; It bathes as well on the right bank Fort-the lock, Seyssel, Pierre-Châtel; After the confluence of the Guicy, he separates the departments of Ain and Isère, without water no remarkable place, and left the first of these departments 3 km upstream of Lyon. In the first part of its course, it is a torrent that rolls through boulders so close together that it disappeared sometime during approximately 60 metres, between the mont Credo and mount Vouache, near Bellegarde; It blew up the dam, but the river remains tortuous, fast, tormented, and is navigable below Seyssel.

Rhone received in the Department of Ain, from northeast to Southwest:

La Valserine, which originates on the border of the Switzerland, near the Dappes Valley, along a moment of the Jura Department, then enters one of the Ain, where she sprinkles Lelex, Chézery and Châtillon Michaille; She then receives the Semine, then rushes into a deep fissure, where it was released to run through the deep gorge of Bellegarde 25 meters and finally flows into the Rhône after 52 km course.

the Seran, who was born in the heights of the Valromey, traverses a narrow and deep valley, and, arrived near Yon, in the canton of Champagne, he formed by a fall of more than 50 metres the beautiful waterfall of Cerveyrieu; then, after having bathed the foot of Grand-Colombey and furrowed Lavours peat plain, it also flows into the Rhone after a course of 35 km; Furan, the same character as the previous torrent ; Ain, whose upper belongs to the Department of Jura, and entering the Ain Department after receiving the Dienné. It goes to Pontd'Ain, absorbs the Suran in right, the Albarine left, and will be thrown in the River Rhône, after 170 kilometers of which half is navigable for large waters ; the Saône, which, from the confluence of the Seille up Neuville, separates the Ain Department of Saône-et-Loire and Rhone departments; It has a slow and extreme indolence; its edges are low and navigation is easy; It receives the Reyssouze coming out of the Revermont, sprinkles Bourg and has 55 kilometers of course, the Veyle fate of a pond of the Dombes, near Châtenay, receives from many tributaries and is divided into two arms in the bass region that borders on the Saône River, where it flows in front of Mason, after a 75 km course, the Chalaronne which was born also in the Dombes and brings to the Saône the waters of several ponds of this marsh area.

Among countless water clusters covering the Department of Ain, must first distinguish Nantua Lake, located near the town of that name, to 425 meters above the sea level, and which occupies an area of 268 hectares; then Kirk Lake, tributary of the Valserine, which has 180 hectares in area and is dominated by both sides by Rocky masses elevated great.

Climate

Placed in the high Jura part and in the vicinity of the Alps, the Ain Department has a pretty rigorous temperature and very heavy rain. The climate is generally healthy, but the Dombes has been, for centuries, one of the most unhealthy countries the France; drying of ponds, giving it a cleaner air, issued fevers that were endemic. Area Population

The area of the Department of Ain is 580 660 hectares, and its population is 371 643 inhabitants, which gives roughly 64 inhabitants per square kilometre. There was an increase of 72,000 people since the beginning of the century.

The population of Ain, almost entirely of Gallic origin, offers two characters sliced as the country itself. She is alert, active, hard-working, intelligent, opinionated in the mountains; quiet, slow and routine in the Plains; everywhere, indeed, straight, honest and courageous.

Agriculture

Like agriculture, the Ain Department has about 558,000 hectares, including 241,000 of cropland; 122 000 wood; nearly 84,000 and grasslands; 70000 heaths, Heathers, mountains; 20 0Q 0 ponds; 14 000 vines, etc.

This Department is mainly agricultural. In N. O., between the Seille and the Veyle (ancient Bresse), are grown successfully wheat, maize and vine, and Prairie also flourish; they are very fertile and developed into beautiful expanses; If products meeting various holds to a climate both hot and humid, and the soil of excellent nature, which belongs to the Jurassic limestone. On the banks of the Saône, culture is particularly remarkable; but wheat does go after the beet and oilseed rape.

The property is quite fragmented in that Department, because it decomposes in a 1,357 722 plots, which are owned by 161 910 owners, most affluent and very-heard in the agricultural industry.

S. the Veyle, in the Borough of Trévoux, soil, composed of a compact and impenetrable clay with water, asked a particular culture, and long it was seen prosper an operating mode born of circumstances. The country was covered with pavement which, containing water in limited spaces, created rich in fish ponds; one year in three, these ponds were drained in other any prepared basins; There sinned fish, and the dry bed, rich in silt deposited by the waters, became an excellent field for culture. But an extreme health risks resulted from this operating mode. Today, the ponds are drained and converted into well-watered meadow. Drainage and liming allowed to substitute, on many points, the cultivation of rye and wheat to oats and buckwheat. A pupil of livestock and poultry has become an important element of prosperity for the population.

In S. E. Department, between the Ain and the. Rhone, there are hillsides where, despite an extreme fragmentation, the vine and cereals yield abundant products. But excessive exploitation of the woods that adorned the recent Foundation of the Jura bare these heights, and today the State is obliged to impose on the populations reforestation to the what it shall also assist by large subsidies.

Rich in pastures, the Highlands from Bugey have seen develop the industry of the dairies that compete with those of the Franche-Comté and the Switzerland, and culture fodder plants, including Chapman, leaves bare no part of the rock itself.

The Gex country, which occupies the North of the eastern region of the Department, seems to belong to the Switzerland; There the mountainous appearance, pine forests and your beautiful pastures. This is formed by the beautiful flock of Merino sheep Naz, in the commune of Chevry near Gex, known since the beginning of this century for the finesse and the silkiness of its wool.

The Department of Ain, contiguous to regions renowned for their wines, beaujolais and maçonnais it, produces itself in significant quantities; some of its wines have gained reputation; Examples include those of Machuraz, Cerveyrieu and Virieule-Grani, in the Valromey.

A regional school of agriculture established in the Saulsaie, in the Borough of Trévoux, a school farm in Pont-de-Veyle, in the arrondissement of Bourg, five agricultural curiate indicate sufficiently the agreement of the Government and people to give to culture any desirable development.

Mines quarries

The soil of the Ain Department contains great mineral wealth, but exploitation is quite narrow. It operates lignite to Soblay, in the arrondissement of Bourg, the iron Villebois, Soudon and Serrières, in the arrondissement of Belley, and asphalt to Pyrimont, in the municipality of Seyssel.

Gypsum for constructions and land amendemcnt is extracted from the marls iridescent Montanges and Lagnieu; hydraulic lime is operated to Tenay, especially since it has applied to the improvement of the lands of the Dombes plateau. Lyon and Geneva are the limestone required for their construction of the careers of Villebois, Argis, Seyssel, ihoiry; Ceyzériat, Jasseron and Montmerle supply their products in Bourg. Peat is operated in Ceyzériat. LAVOURS, Oyonnax and Belley surroundings provide a lithographic stone also estimated than Germany.

Industry trade

Industry and trade of the Department are active enough and even flourishing thanks to easy communication channels established in recent years.

The arrondissement of Bourg is enriched by a pupil of poultry, whose export reached several thousand francs cents. The art of the Potter is in full prosperity in Bourg which manufactures renowned enamels.

Beet, grown great in Jes boroughs of Bourg and Trévoux, feeds are sweets crèches and Tournus, and Cherinal alcohol distilleries, Kvcent64 and Notre-Dame-des-Champs.

A pupil of horses took the importance especially in Ambérieux, slow, Montmerle and Pont-de-Vaux.

The arrondissement of Belley produces wines that support transportation and are beginning to be known outside. Iron and especially asphalt there are actively exploited, as well as lime of Tenay.

The arrondissement of Nantua is an important manufacture of combs, snuff boxes and tibletterie; NANTUA, Oyonnax and Narayan are the main centers of this industry.

For about fifteen years, the silk industry came from Lyon look in the boroughs of Belley and Nantua cheaper labour, and more than fifty communes of the arrondissement of Nantua work for the Lyon factory.

The arrondissement of Gex has rival dairies of the Jura and the Switzerland and important sawmills where will debit the wood of its rich forests. Roads channels railways

Imperial roads that cross the Department are six in number, and have a course of 4i8 km; departmental roads, the number of 22, with 59 has kilometres of development, and there is 5282 roads. The main Imperial road is first class, and couduit from Paris to Geneva by Montrevel, Bourg, Ceyzériat, Nantua, Michaille Châtillon and SaintGenis.

The Department has only a single channel, one Poni-de-Vaux, who did that ^ kilometres and a half, and avoids trade delays and difficulties that offer the meanders of the Reyssouze, from Pont-de-Vaux to its mouth in the Saône.

The Department of Ain is served by the main line of the railway from Paris a Lyon that affects Trévoux only, and by 5 branches or sous-embranchements that relate to the main network line and develop 309 km. These branches are:

  1. that sneak in Bourg, which descends from the n. s. with stations in Coligny, mill-des-bridges and Saint Etienne;
  2. the Bourg in Ambérieux, which extends the previous one with stations in Vavrelte, Pont-D'ain and Ambronay.
  3. to Mâcon to Bourg, which crosses the western part of the Department, with stations at Pont-de-Veyle, Vonnas, Mézériat and Polliat;
  4. from Lyon to Geneva by Culoz, where the route crosses the southern part of the Department and links the many stations of Miribel, Beynost, Montluel, Meximieux, Leyment, Ambérieux, Saint-Rambert, Tenay, Rossillon, Virieu-le-Grand, A'rtemare, Culoz, Seyssel, Pyrimont, Bellegarde and Collonges.
  5. one from Lyon to Bourg, which will necessarily result in the transformation of the Dombes, and has stations at Sathonay, les Echets, Mionnay, Saint-André de Corcy, Villars, Marlieux, SaintPaul and Servas.

Seen, the Ain Department is truly sillonue of tracks serving 35 stations.

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