Aude

Geography

The Aude belongs to the Languedoc-Roussillon area. She is bordering on the departments of the Eastern Pyrenees in the south, of Ari?ge in the west, the Haute-Garonne in the North-West, the Tarn in north and Herault in the North-East. In the east, the department east borders by the Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions) on 47 km. Its surface is of 6 343 km ? what classifies it with the 39e row of the French departments. The Aude is also a Pyrenean department whose culminating point is the peak from Veined 2469 Mr.

First men

Human traces are trouvees in the department towards 1 500 000 years front J. - C. in the form of strikers and of tools work on the hillock of Grazailles has Carcassonne. But the most interesting discovery is that of cranium of the man of Tautavel done by Henry de Lumley on the commune of Tautavel in the Eastern Pyrenees [2]. It is the oldest cranium known in Europe. It goes back to approximately 450 000 years front J. - C. The man of Tautavel probably lived in all the area.

Roman peace

The Romans direct by the general-consul Domitius Ahenorbarbus settle first of all has Narbonne in 118 av. J. - C. on the oppidum of Montlaures which becomes the capital of the province and a very active commercial port. The site is strategic since it is located at the crossroads of the Aquitania way and the Domitia way like in seaside and close to the mouth of the Aude. Carcassonne becomes Latin in 30 av. J. - C. with many farms cerealieres. During nearly two centuries, the Aude is in peace and the economy of the area very strongly develops.

Various occupations

The Visigoths invaded the country into 435 whereas Flavius Aetius, Roman senator, were occupies has to repress the bagaudes, of the brigands of Gaulle. In 507, the battle of Vouille gains by Clovis enabled him to conquer Toulouse and Aquitaine but it could not recover the territory of the Aude who remained with the hands of the Visigoths, thanks to the help of the king of the ostrogoths, whose troops beat the son of the frank conqueror into 508. The area formed part of Septimanie then, thus appelee because it was composed of seven eveches that the kings Visigoths had established there: Elne, Agde, Narbonne, Lodeve, Beziers, Maguelonne and Nimes. Septimanie recovered the Aude but also all the Languedoc-Roussillon area.

Installation of the counts?

In 817, Louis Debonnaire detaches the Carcasses and Razes of Septimanie to join together them with the marquisat of Toulouse and the kingdom of Aquitaine. The first count de Carcassonne, Oliba, of the family of the counts de Barcelone, is then set up into 819. Razes was another count forms by an archbishop of Narbonne, drives out its city by Buckwheats. There was transports its episcopal seat and had gets has this small country the honors of the feudal title. Narbonne format one third count. Thus, the department of the Aude was form to the IX E century of three counts: the count of Carcassonne, the count of Razes and the count de Narbonne. In 880, the count of Razes is linked by a marriage has that of Carcassonne to be never again separate for it.

Catharism as a Aude

To the XIII E century, the area experiences the development of the catharism. This religion was very quickly judge like heretic by the Catholic church. And face has its major establishment in the counts of Carcassonne and Toulouse, the pope Innocent III lance in 1209 the crusade against the Albigensians. The barons of north link themselves to form the army of the knights cross under the orders of Simon de Montfort. While the count of Toulouse Raymond VI receives the discharge, the count of Carcassonne faces only the army. Of Carcassonne becomes the refuge many cathares quotes.

The Protestant crisis and the economic expansion of the department

In 1561, religious disorders appear has Carcassonne in the form of Protestant crisis. The duke of Henri I er of Montmorency, governor of Languedoc, joined reform them in 1574. Dimension catholic, it is the duke Anne of Merry who takes the head of the catholic league. Henri II of Montmorency, east demolishes at the time of the battle of Castelnaudary in September 1632 against the royal troops, then condemns died and carries out has Toulouse.

The creation of the department

The department was creates with the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790, pursuant to the law of December 22, 1789, starting from part of the old province of Languedoc. The deputies of the three seneschalsies of Carcassonne, Limoux and Castelnaudary agreed to claim changes whatever the order to which they belonged. The majority of the popular companies creees in the communes was rattachee with the Club of the Jacobins, preferably with the Club of Cordeliers. The department of the Aude appeared on January 29, 1790. Administrative divisions were modifiees by the law of the 28 pluviose year 8, which created four districts (Poincare reduced them has three in 1926) and brought back the number of cantons of 45 has 31.

The XX E century

The Aude knows a strong wine production while the cereals of Lauragais have great difficulties. But, the department undergoes the overproduction and the price-cutting of the wine. In 1907, under the impulse of Marcellin Albert and of the mayor of Narbonne, Ernest Ferroul, the wine crisis is transformed into revolt of the vine growers. That results in creation from 1909 of many cooperative wine caves audoises.

source: wikipedia.

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