Calvados

CalvadosHistory

The Department was created during the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790, pursuant to the law of December 22, 1789, from part of the former province of Normandy. It considered a time to name "Orne-below", before choosing its current name.

Rome, when it invades Gaul, found in the current territory of, Calvados the Baiocasses, to the North, the Lexovii, to the East; She submitted them without great effort, but without being able to attach them. As early as the 5th century, indeed, we see these populations to aggregate the armorican CITES, and this was the rude invasion of the Franks which linked it to the political system that was soon constitute Neustria. When the Norman Conquest had hijacked this portion of territory from the rest of the Frankish monarchy, Basse-Normandie, which roughly represents the Calvados, turned into a hotbed of bloody battles and feudal domination. The descendants of Guillaume le Conquérant, became English, fought first between them this rich country; then they ravaged, when the Kings of France had confiscated it. The wars of religion are later carried their deplorable violence and caused more than an uprising among the crushed peasants by unfair taxes; such was the revolt of the Gauthier and Nupieds that broke du Maréchal de Gassion even more by the torments that by force of arms. When quiet had reappeared, the Dive marked the separation of itself lower Normandy which is subdivided in several small countries:

the Bessin, Bayeux country, country of Auge, Cliff area, the Bocage, region of Vire which stretches into the Orne. In the new division of the France, Calvados territory took the name of Department of Orne-lower, but shortly after, he received one by which he is known today.

History of the Department by by V.-A. Malte-Brun

The Calvados Department does not, like that of Seine-Inférieure (published in 1881-1884), a dominant city, whose the ancient importance will be maintained through the centuries and can give history a real unit. Bayeux, Lisieux, Caen shone in turn, and the history of the Department can only be the history of these cities. No laughing matter we report here some general facts which are related point to the special history of these communities.

This territory was occupied, at the time of the Roman conquest, by three main populations the Baiocasses (surroundings of Bayeux), to the West; to the East, the Lexovii (Lisieux and its territory) between these two populations, se, place the Viducasses. Submitted by one of the lieutenants of César, they lived under the imperial domination until the revolt of the Armorique, at the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. At that time, the countries later included under the name of Brittany and Normandy formed a kind of federative Republic, where each tribe was governed by elected judges. This independent existence ceased at the time of the conquest of Neustria by Clovis during this period and during the Norman period, they followed the General destinies of Neustria, later to become Normandy.

This territory, during this latter period, was particularly agitated inhabited by most proud and the kicking of the conquerors, he became the home of the revolts that they tried against the authority of their Dukes. This land, meeting as the rest of the province to the Kingdom of France under Philippe-Auguste, was more exposed to the woes brought the English invasion.

In 1346, Édouard III, King of England, led by a traitor, Geoffroy of Harcourt, ravaged the country and pillaged and burned down the cities. Under Charles V, Charles the bad, King of Navarre and comte d ' Évreux, who owned a few points of the territory later in the constituency of Calvados, yet waved the region. More reduced later to submit, it lost its fields of Normandy, with the exception of Cherbourg. But, under Charles VI, the country was still exposed to the woes of foreign invasion. Landed at the mouth of the river Touques, the French renewed their ancient devastation but it was in this country, so often ravaged by their weapons, that should engage the battle which ended their dominance. Richemond defeated them at Formigny near Bayeux.

Since that time until the Reformation, the country enjoys a fairly great tranquillity. The wars of religion it désolèrent again, at the same time, the peasants, crushed tax and driven to despair by the excesses of their misery, rebelled. This revolt, where excesses of any kind were atoned by most cruel repression, is known as the revolt of the Garbutt. Later, in 1639, they reappeared under the name of Nu-ieds; du Maréchal de Gassion submitted them easily and the torments began again. The country remained calm since that time until the Revolution. The Dives served as then demarcation line to the two major divisions of the country high and low Normandy. The part of the basse Normandie which is landlocked in the Department was divided into several regions that bore the name of Bessin (surroundings of Bayeux) plain of Caen, pays d'Auge (Cliff surroundings); and finally the Bocage, which extended the territory of the Department of Orne and included in that of the Calvados, Vire and Condé.

During the Revolution, the Calvados Department first received the name of Orne-inferior and, soon after, that what he wears today. Agitated a moment, in 1793, by the insurgency organized in Caen by the girondins, the country submitted without resistance to the authority of the Convention. Some parts of the territory. were later, exposed to the ravages of the chouans. but these partial disorders were soon repressed. Since that time, the Calvados peacefully delivered to industrial and agricultural work that promotes the excellent nature of this region. Except a few war contributions which have not exceeded 692,129 fr. 41, he had the good fortune to escape the disasters of the war of 1870-1871. Source: The illustrated France, geography, history, V.-A statistical administration. Malte-Brun 1881-1884.

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