Essonne

The Essonne is a French department locates at the south of Paris, in the area Ile-de-France, completely just with the Paris and its suburbs, which draws its name from the river the Essonne whose course crosses the territory according to an axis south-north until the junction with the Seine.

Officially creates on January 1, 1968 by dismemberment of old the Seine-et-Oise, it carries code INSEE and postal 91, covers a territory of thousand eight hundred and four square kilometers occupies in 2007 by 1 201 994 inhabitants, its chief town east installs has Evry and its general advice east chairs by the Socialist Michel Berson.

Its inhabitants are call Essonniens?

History

The territory of the current department of the Essonne was occupies in an unquestionable way as of the Neolithic era, as testify some the discoveries in various points to the flint sizes department and the rise in menhirs as in the drill of Senart Brunoy has. At the time Gallic, the territory was at the border between the fields of Parisii in north, Carnutes in south-west and Senons in south-east. First cities commencerent then has to be dissociated, of which Dourdan, famous for its activity of pottery. The Roman invasion allowed the construction of a multitude of villa rustica on the plates dominating the rich person valleys, as the results testify some to archaeological excavations has Orsay. Other villages are transformerent in oppidum with cross roads, such Arpajon.

Came then the time from the disparate kingdoms, Milly-the-Drill becoming by the will of Dryus a center druidic to the II E front century J. - C., the area of Dourdan undergoing the authority of pagan king Dordanus to the IV E century. To the VI E century was completed the evangelization of the territory, with the construction as of year 600 of a first church Corbeil-Essonnes has and the development has Palaiseau of an abbey under the impulse of holy Bathilde and holy Wandrille. In year 604 was held the first battle of Stamps between Clotaire II, king de Neustrie and Thierry II, king de Bourgogne combines of Theodebert II, king d' Austrasie. From the VIII E century, the majority of the territory were just with the French royal field, the kings having the places and distributing the grounds has their vassal. With X E century the construction of strong castles started then controlling trade route, as has Montlhery, or to stop the raids Vikings has Corbeil-Essonnes and Ferte-Went It. From the XI E century, the basilica Our-Lady-of-Good-Guard has Longpont-on-Barley became the first stage of the pilgrimage of Saint-Jacques-of-Compostelle from Paris.

The revolts of the noble buildings entrainerent the complete integration of the territory in the royal field, Robert II of France building the castle of Stamps, Louis VI of France dismantling the castle of Montlhery to the XII E century and reducing nothing the powerful family of Montlhery has, Philippe II of France building the castle of Dourdan to the XIII E century. In 1131 was held the council of Stamps which decided in favour of the future pope Innocent II. In 1258 was seals treats it of Corbeil, fixing the territorial limits between the kingdom of France and the kingdom of Aragon. The field of Stamps was sets up as a count in 1298, creating the line of the counts then dukes of Stamps. From this time the two principal components of the local economy are fixerent, agriculture to feed the capital and industry using the driving force of the many rivers. To the XII E century, the Large mills of Corbeil became '' mills of the King ''.

From the XIV E century installerent themselves in the area of important commanderies templieres has Etampes, Longjumeau, Chalou-Moulineux, Auvernaux, organizing vast prosperous agricultural domains. In 1305 treats it Athis-on-Barley was sign which integrated into the kingdom of France the towns of Lille, Douai and Bethune. In 1326 the second draft of Corbeil intervened, renewing Auld Alliance. In 1346, Philippe VI of France signed the ordinance of Brunoy, consideree like the first legal French document having milked with sustainable development. The One hundred Year old occurred then war, causing devastations and massacres on the territory, as the fire in 1360 of the church Saint-Clement d' Arpajon by the troops of Edouard III of England, burning sharp eight hundred inhabitants. In 1371, it was with the turn of Milly-the-Drill to be ravagee by the '' black prince '' Edouard de Woodstock. Between 1353 and 1355, Paris strikes by the Black Death used the stage coaches of the boatmen of Corbeil, the corbeillards to evacuate the corpses, thus giving rise to the word hearse. In 1465 take place the battle of Montlhery between Louis XI of France and Charles the Bold one.

The beginning of the Rebirth saw the commercial development of the area, with the construction of markets has Milly-the-Drill to the XV E century then Dourdan, Arpajon and Mereville to the XVI E century. In same time, the fixing of the royal capacity has Paris then Versailles, two cities close and the prerogatives which the towns of Dourdan constituted and Etampes, offered in present to favorite Anne de Pisseleu and Gabrielle d' Estrees, entrainerent the establishment of castles, built by the Parisian courtiers and magistrates. In 1568 the Peace of Longjumeau was signee, concluding the second war of religion. In 1590, at the time of the seat of Paris, it was still Corbeil, taken by Alexandre Farnese who allowed the supply of Paris, blocks by the troops of Henri IV of France. In 1628, the town of Essonnes was ravagee by a fire, causes by a new explosion of the mill has powder. In 1652, in full Sling, the second battle of Stamps led to the victory of Turenne which had stations its troops has Arpajon.

The XVIII E century saw the area being equipped with several hospitals has Milly-the-Drill, Dourdan and Arpajon, of relay of station on the roads of Fontainebleau and Orleans. It was completed by the French Revolution, modifying relatively little the daily newspaper of the inhabitants. A news item marked however this period troublee, the assassination has Etampes of the mayor Jacques Guillaume Simonneau, involving creation by the legislative Assembly of a '' Fete of the Law '' on all the territory. Relatively little touches by the conflicts apart from the Prussian occupation in 1870, the territory benefitted from the XIX E century to profit from an important modernization, with the creation of several railway lines, the line of Seals in 1854, the Bretigny line - Turns in 1867, the line of Large Belt in 1882, several villages then becoming a vacation resort for the Parisian middle-class rich person and the artists. The opening of the tram line of Arpajonnais in 1894 allowed a new rise to power of the agricultural outlets of the area, offering an direct access and rapid with the markets of Paris. Heavy industry made also its appearance with the opening of the Decauville factories has Evry-Small-Borough and of the paper mills Darblay has Essonnes, inserting this rich person essonnienne family in the circle of the '' two hundred '' families.

The beginning of the XX E century saw a new revolution for the department, which became one of the cradle of aviation, accessible Viry-Chatillon in 1909 the first airport organizes world has Port-Aviation, in 1910 Louis Bleriot and Maurice Farman opened schools on the airport of Stamps-Mondesir, Bretigny-sur-Orge had the 1938 of air base 217, place of many records. Another site emblematic of the race at the speed, the motor-racing track of Linas-Montlhery creates in 1924 remained the place of the most famous automobile races until in the years 1960. Relatively saving by the two world wars, in spite of the presence of the concentration camp of Linas-Montlhery built in 1940 by the Nazis for enfermement of the Tziganes, the future known department as of the years 1950 a strong population increase, touches like these neighbors by the construction of shantytowns to the doors of Paris, situation later aggravee by the need for lodging the many ones repatriate Algeria come to settle in the area. These demographic upheavals were going to involve administrative recutting.

Source: wikipedia.

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