Eure et loir

History

The department was creates with the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790 pursuant to the law of December 22, 1789, has to leave, mainly, of parts of the old provinces of Orleanais (Beauce) and Maine (Pole), but also of the Ile-de-France (Drouais, Thimerais, Vallee of Avre, Hurepoix).

The current department of Eure-et-Loir corresponds to the central part of the territory of Carnutes whose Chartres was the capital, under the name of Autricum. Carnutes are famous especially for their bond, reality or supposes, with the Gallic religion. It is in a locus consecratus, in mythical the '' drill of Carnutes '', that the druids would have held their annual meeting. In the north of the department, the Gallic people of Durocasses had as a Dreux capital.

With the Middle Ages, the current territory of the department east dominates by the town of Chartres. It develops thanks to the culture of the rich person grounds of Beauce (walk to corn) and has its religious vocation which had in particular with the presence of the relic of the Veil of the Virgin (gift of Charles-the-Bald person in 876). On the impulse of Fulbert of Chartres, it will be the cradle of a intellectual rebirth with the foundation of the School of Chartres. In north, Dreux, the valley of Avre and Thimerais, just as the Count of the Pole in the west, constitute post offices advances of kings de France vis-a-vis the dukes of Normandy. The grounds of Eure-et-Loir, by their interest strategic, are thus very early ancrees in mobility capetienne and gradually rattachees with the old provinces of Orleanais and the Ile-de-France.

During the One hundred Year old war, the territory of the department is in the center of several conflicts, because of its proximity with Paris and Orleans. Draft of Bretigny, which puts an end temporarily to the war will be sign close to Chartres there.

From the Rebirth, the Eure-et-Loir becomes also an area appraisal by the kings of France to install their favorite there: Diane of Poitiers (Anet), then Madam de Maintenon or the marchioness of Pompadour (Crecy-Broods).

The department is also mark by the presence of Maximilien de Bethune, duke of Sully, deceased in its castle of Villebon and buries has Nogent-le-Rotrou.

With the Revolution, it is initially plans to create a department beauceron. Beauce indeed has the advantage never of having been a province under the Old Mode. Its primarily geographical dimension and not policy thus fitted perfectly in the revolutionary ideology. This project is put in failure mainly by the will of the king not to see dispersees in a too significant number of departments its possessions franciliennes. The creation of the department in its current configuration is also due to resistances of the grounds of Thimerais and of Drouais has to see itself aggregate has those of old Normandy and to impossibility of preserving at the Pole its unit, partly for political reasons (former count), and especially because of the absence of a sufficiently important city to prevail itself of the row of chief town of department. Chartres, with between-others general Marceau, the Sieyes abbot or Brissot de Warville, leader of Of Gironde, gives several great men to the Revolution.

To the XIX E century, the north of the department knows a strong industrialization, with in particular the mprimery of Firmin Didot and textile manufactures of Waddington. Chartres preserves primarily its commercial vocation thanks to its significant market at corn and the trade of wool of the many breedings of sheep, whose fair of Chateaudun is also a high place. The Pole which is little develops, and knew a notable emigration towards Quebec the previous centuries, becomes a ground of nurses considered for their maternal qualities near the easy families of Paris. Dreux becomes also an industrial town, in particular after the crisis of will phylloxera which met definitively has the vines Normans low. After the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851 of Napoleon III, the Eure-et-Loir belongs to the departments places in state of siege in order to avoid has any massive rising. Less than one hundred opponents are stopped. The department is hard touches by the war of 1870, with the battle of Loigny and the fire of Chateaudun by the Prussian army.

To the XX E century, the department becomes more and more economically binds to the development of the Paris region. Chartres and Dreux benefit fully from this proximity with the establishment of several large companies (of which the future Philips establishments), while the valley of the Eure which connects them becomes a vacation resort with the construction of many second home. During the Second world war, the department is mark by its Jean Moulin prefect who made there its first act of Resistance vis-a-vis the occupant. The town of Chartres is partially destroyed by a bombardment into 1944 which touched particuliere its library. The city of the Magnifying glass is as for it almost completely disaster victim. Post-war period, is just department gradually the urban surface of Paris, the cantons of Anet, Maintenon and of Nogent-the-King, even of Auneau, closely becoming dregs has those of the department of Yvelines bordering.

In policy, the department will be the ground of election and the cradle of several great figures of the III E and IV E republics: William Henry Waddington (Minister for the state education in 1873 and 1877), Maurice Violet (minister of state under the Popular front), Paul Deschanel (president of the Republic in 1920), Maurice Bourges-Maunoury (president of the Council in 1957).

With the turning of the years 1980, Dreux politically becomes a city singuliere while electing as mayor in 1977, then deputy in 1981, Francoise Gaspard, one of the first political women having assumes her homosexuality publicly, then while being the theatre of an alliance in 1983 between the local line and the National front carries out by Jean-Pierre Stirbois, whose Marie-France Stirbois widow is elected deputy in 1989.

Source: wikipedia.

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