Two hundred years before Jésus Christ, the territory which forms the Guyenne was occupied by the Vasates and the Bituriges, with Burdikal as its capital. The arrival of César in Gaul, the resistance was soft on the part of the first and nowhere on the part of the latter; the area was incorporated in the second Aquitaine. After the Romans, the Vandals, and Visigoths make masters of the country, which became a flourishing Kingdom. In the 6th century, Clovis, at the head of the Franks, defeated the Bituriges and seized of Aquitaine. One of his successors, Dagobert, abandoned the region in the Iberian tribes of the Vascones, and it soon became a single Duchy, administered for one hundred fifty years by the Dukes of Gascony. The country was delivered to political strife until Charlemagne, which reconstituted the Aquitaine Kingdom, and assigned, in 778, to his son, Louis le Débonnaire; but a century later, it became a Duchy. The new Dukes had to fight the Normans; the heiress of one of them married in second marriage to Henri II, King of England, led by her marriage the establishment of English domination. The abuses, the plundering of the road and the little shepherds had populations until the time where Philippe gall confiscated Aquitaine; but political alliances ended the dispute, and the English power found again consolidated. In the following century, after the loss of the battle of Poitiers and the imprisonment of King John, King Edouard categorizes the Guyenne in the Principality; But if the Court of the new Kingdom is brilliant, campaigns suffer, peasants revolted, the Lords rises, Bertrand Du Guesclin runs, and this valiant soldier would have repelled outsiders, if, in 1375, a treaty not had arrested in front of Bordeaux during his victories. Then followed various alternatives, up to the point where, after the battle of Castillon in 1453, the English were finally driven out of the country.

Louis XI, in 1469, erected the Aquitaine in appanage to his brother, Charles de Berry, who died poisoned, and the Duchy made return to the Crown. Since that time, a rebellion caused by the salt under Henri II tax, the wars of religion under Charles IX, during which Protestantism found many proselytes, war of the Fronde which lifted Bordeaux against Mazarin, were the only important events in its history. Guyenne prospered, its industry, its trade spread gradually. When the Revolution broke out, MEPs Girondins played a significant role in the history of these terrible times.

General reworking of the France, in 1790, the Gironde Department was formed from the old Bordeaux, which included Western Guyenne.


The Gironde belongs to the Aquitaine region. It is bordering on the departments of the Moors, the Lot-et-Garonne, the Dordogne and the Charente-Maritime.

The Gironde is crossed by the Dordogne and the Garonne.

The territory structure in four distinct entities:

  • The littoral, or are dispersees some seaside resorts very animees in summer. The dunes of the littoral were fixees by the man to the XIX E century. The Money Dimension is famous for surfing.
  • The drill landaise, covering the western half of the department. This drill was partly plantee to the XIX E century, which marked the end of the agro-pastoral system, largely widespread in the Moors at that time. One will practise there the gemmage until the end of the XX E century.
  • The Of Bordeaux one, wine-producing area or one finds the large farms which make the fame of the wines of Bordeaux.
  • Bazadais, structure around the town of Bazas. Without real wine production, it is a country of mixed-farming; production of but, tobacco, tomatos, asparaguses and breeding of the race bazadaise, as well as wood plantations. The Gascon traditions are goods ancrees there. It is the country of Clement V, pope Gascon par excellence. It is in this country that one finds the greatest number of historic buildings of the Gironde: the cathedral of Bazas (world heritage of UNESCO), castles of Roquetaillade, Trunk, Cazeneuve, Budos, Fargues, Villandraut, the collegial one of Uzeste.

A western and southern majority of the department belongs to Gascogne and shelters most of the drill of the Moors of Gascogne. The Gironde profits from a broad opening cotiere of 126 km on the Atlantic Ocean, of the point of Low register in the south of the basin of Arcachon.

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