Haut rhin

History

Before the Roman invasion, the territory occupied by the Department of Haut-Rhin was inhabited by several tribes Celtic, Sequaniens, Rauraques, Triboques, etc. These peoples fought a long resistance to the invasion, and it took bloody fighting to reduce; also forts arose on the banks of the Rhine to contain these barely subject tribes; However, with their political skill, the Romans, clearing the forests of the province, drawing roads, creating towns, visited this region very prosperous period of two centuries; It was then included in this province named Maxima Sequanorum, Besançon formed the metropolis.

It was under the reign of Constantine, that saint Materne brought into the Haute-Alsace the first elements of Christianity; but then the power of the emperors began to decline, the great Roman empire is désorganisadomestic little by little, and the 4th century, during the reign of the weak Honorius, his lieutenant Stilicho was forced to withdraw its troops, the barbarians from the North rushed on this land trans-rhenane they coveted for a long time. The first were Alans and vandals, then the Germans, and finally the terrible invasion of Attila and the Huns in 451. In 496, after the victory of Tolbiac, the Frankish domination settled on the left bank of the Rhine.

After the death of Clovis, the two Alsatian, gathered to a Duchy, were included in the Kingdom of Austrasia until Childebert died in 843. at that time, the Treaty of Verdun untied this Duchy of the Frankish monarchy and joined it the Kingdom of Lorraine, to Lothair, eldest son of Louis-le-Débonnaire, but twenty-six years later, he found himself attached to the empire of Germany.

This province was then administered by the Dukes of Swabia and Alsace which depended on the Emperor; they belonged to the first families of Germany, and the last of these Dukes was this young Conradin, beheaded in Naples, who played Charles of Anjou the conquest of Sicily. Alsace lifted then more directly of the empire; in 1268, it was divided into two essays, and the upper landgraviate understood the Haute-Alsace, which forms the current Department of Haut Rhin.

Until the 15th century, this province was exposed to disturbances of all kinds; the invasions of the Normans and English, the rivalry between the houses of France and Burgundy, the claims of the bishops and the struggle of peasants against the nobles, known under the nom de guerre of the Rustauds, left it no rest. Luther and Calvin appeared then, then the Anabaptists, and in 1548, a reformed church was founded in Strasbourg.

However, the Haute-Alsace had passed by succession in the House of the Hapsbourg, and then in the House of Austria; in 1648, the Treaty of Münster ceded to the France all rights of the Emperor on the two essays, subject to franchises granted to the imperial cities; Louis XIV violently occupied these cities without worrying about this clause of the Treaty; from there of the revolts that Turenne and Condé were forced to compress; the King took Strasbourg in 1681, and the Treaty of Ganesh, in 1697, secured him the left bank of the Rhine. In the first call of the Revolution, all Alsace arose with enthusiasm, and his children fought heroically at the borders.

In 1790, when the National Assembly decreed the division of France by departments, the upper Rhine was formed the Haute-Alsace and the small Republic of Mülhausen.

Geography

The Department of Haut-Rhin is part of the Alsace region. It is bordering the departments of Bas-Rhin and the Territoire de Belfort and Vosges, but also the Germany to the East, along the Rhine, and the Swiss cantons of Jura, Solothurn, Basel-Landschaft and Basel-City in the South. The highest point of the upper Rhine is located in the Grand Ballon, in the massif of the Vosges mountains at an altitude of 1 424 m, and the lowest at 79 m, along the Rhine.

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