Hautes pyrenees


The department was creates at the Revolution French, on March 4, 1790 pursuant to the law of December 22, 1789, starting from part of the province of Gascogne, the aforementioned Bigorre and the Country of the Four-Valleys (Aure, Barousse, Nestes and Magnoac).

Conventional the vicquois Bertrand Barere particularly fought in this direction: '' If this country, Bigorre, is too small to form a department, it is appropriate to increase it. But it would be very iniquitous to make of them only districts depending on a etrangere city; it would be a political murder to make of Tarbes the poor wretch chief town of a district.?'' It is then baptizes '' Hautes-Pyr?n?es ''.

One will note the astonishing geography of this department which has two small enclaves in the department close to the Yr?n?es-Atlantiques. It is a survival of the Middle Ages: indeed, at the end of the XI E century, Gaston IV Crosses it, Viscount of Bearn, marries Talese d' Aragon, viscountess of Montaner, small territory situee between Bearn and Bigorre; Montaner remains in Bearn but Talese keeps for it five parishes which always constitute the two enclaves in the Yr?n?es-Atlantiques.


The department of the Hautes-Pyr?n?es belongs to the Midday-Pyrenees area. It is bordering on the departments of the Yr?n?es-Atlantiques, Gers, the Haute-Garonne, and the province of Huesca (Spain).

Three quite distinct natural areas compose the high-Pyrenean landscape: the mountain and its valleys, slopes and plains.

The mountain, i.e. the Pyrenees, recovers, in the south, half of the territory of the department. It forms a natural barrier between France and Spain, allowing one road access towards Aragon by the Aragnouet-Bielsa tunnel. 35 of its peaks exceed 3 000 m and the peak of Vignemale, has 3 298 m, is the culminating point.

Two distinct geological zones characterize this area of mountains:

  • the chain known as '' axial '', or one finds more the high summits of the French Pyrenees like Vignemale, which culminates has 3 298 m;
  • a zone of links fold sedimentary.

Less high but more massive than the alpine reliefs, they isolate from many valleys encaissees and '' natural cul-de-sac '', true microcosms preserves by these stone walls.

The altitude of the Pyrenees grows blurred gradually while going up towards north, and the mountains yield the place to Piedmont, limiting in the east by the vast plate of Lannemezan (have approximately 600 m), true water tower of the department or are born from many rivers of the basins of the Garonne and Adour (Gers, Baise, Save, Gimone, Midou, Twelve). This morainic plate forms with Quaternary by the rout of the glaciers is prone has a relatively hard climate.

More in the west and north, Piedmont lets filter broader valleys which attract the majority of the population of the department. It is it an undulating country, with the more lenient climate.

In the west, the basin of Gave of Pau or Lavedan forms a broad valley of Doors has Argeles-Gazost.

In the center, one finds the valley of Campan dominee by the Peak of the South, the collar of Tourmalet, the solid masses of Neouvielle and Arbizon.

In the east, the valley of Neste is held until Arreau or meet the valleys of Aure and Louron.

The valleys are reliees between them by collars of sometimes high altitude such Soulor, Tourmalet, Aspin or Peyresourde.

Source: Wikipedia.

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