Hauts de seine

Name of the Department
Hauts-de-Seine

Name of the Area
Ile-de-France

Surface
175 km2

Culminating point
Culminating point 180 m has Vaucresson, close to the motorway

Prefecture
Nanterre. 3 districts. 40 cantons. 36 communes.

Population
1.391.658 inhabitants (census 1990).

History

The ground of the current department provided many paleolithic layers, in particular that of Levallois, and the time galloromaine has leaves many traces. Certain villas galloromaines have gives birth has villages, little by little organize from the religious and same point of view administrative, beside the strongholds and properties of the lords. The sovereigns themselves, of Dagobert has Napoleon, very often have resides on this territory. Among the political events of the Old Mode, one can quote the assassination of Henri III has Saint-Cloud, the court literary and political of the duchess of Maine has Sceaux, the stays of the Fleury cardinal has Issy. The day before the Revolution, the territory is presented like a juxtaposition of villages, properties residential and cultures: cereals, vegetables and especially vine. Still let us note ceramics manufactures, careers, mills, laundries. With the Revolution, the inhabitants exprimerent often right complaints, protesting primarily against privileges and abuse. The Republic made manufacture its military balloons has Meudon; Bonaparte conquered the capacity with the Orangery of Saint-Cloud and meditated has Malmaison the great projects of the reign. After the double and enemy invasion of 1814-1815 lasts, the Restoration installed a paternalist mode and the Monarchy of July, which made return to the wearing of Courbevoie ashes of Napoleon, started has to modify the face of the area, by the creation of the railroads. Those favoriserent the industrial development and, consequently, the growth of the working districts. The population increased has a fast rate/rhythm: certain communes doublerent of population between the beginning and the end of the Second Empire. The war of 1870 and the Commune eprouverent much the area, the castles of Saint-Cloud, Meudon and Issy disappeared. Was the incoherent movement of industrialization and urbanization accentuated at the end it century, to succeed has a true anarchy, whose public authorities commencerent has to become aware a little before the world war.? After this one, the housing shortage still developed a construction badly gouvernee and they is only towards 1955-60 that serious efforts were made to equip and arrange this vast urban territory, in the direction of a better land use, safeguarding and development of the landscape like monuments, improvement of the living and working conditions of those which live there. The State, the area, the department, the communes, maintaining reciprocally autonomous, endeavour to contribute to it.

Geography and nature

It is certainly the department of France to the strangest form, crescent which surrounds all the west of Paris and whose points reach the Saint-Denis plain in north and a6 motorway in the south. Its principal characteristic geographical is the presence of a large river which described two meanders very accentuate there, cause by the presence of two solid masses of hills: a calcareous plate in the south, culminating in Plessis-Robinson, and, in the center, a kind of cliff extending from Separate has Asnieres and of which the most visible height is the Mount-Valerien. In north and the south, alluvial plains, whose villages have form the current cities, joined together. ones with the others. The south of the department is the shape of a calcareous plate of or, during centuries, was extracted the stone has to build: the careers of Chatillon, Bagneux, Clamart have gives rise to the majority of the monuments of Paris, and it still remains about it of many undergrounds. This plate is notch, in the east, by the valley of the Beaver, which, by places, forms the departmental limit.? One can distinguish four geographical sectors: communes of Right Bank, depending still narrowly on Paris, especially residential and of tertiary employment; the loop of Gennevil-liers, still industrial, but in full change (district of Defense); the center, undulating and green; does the south, very urbanize and industrializes in extreme cases of Paris and which as one of distant, offers a less dense urban occupation.? Although the landscape was covered almost everywhere by the coat with constructions, nature did not lose its rights in the Hauts-de-Seine yet. Initially by the presence of the river which draws a long sinuous course there, sows islands. The General advice made these last years of large efforts to cleanse the Seine, to clean banks and to rehabilitate the islands, in particular the island Saint-Germain. Nature still appears there by the many green areas of the department, which include/understand natural drills and wood (Meudon, Ville of Avray, Saint-Cucupha), traditional parks, ?uvres of Ours or its disciples (Saint-Cloud, Sceaux, Meudon), parks romantic or picturesque (Malmaison, Valley-with-Wolves, Jardins Kahn, park Henri Sellier) and modern gardens, that the General advice made emerge has Nanterre, has Villeneuve-the-Garenne, has Colombes, with the Mount-Valerien, while it arranged the old stud farms of Jardy in place of relaxation and sport.

Arts

With the simple department of the Hauts-de-Seine, one would compose a handbook of history of Article? In architecture, one leaves the Romanesque art (bell-tower of Chatenay-Malabry) to arrive at the Gothic churches, inspirees of NotreDame of Paris (Bagneux) and blazing (Puteaux). The Rebirth is present at the orangery of Meudon, then the 17th century is announced with the frontage of the church of Rueil or at the house of Armande Bejart has Meudon. The time of the castles has leaves to us, in spite of the destruction, the old castle of Vanves (Michelet college), that of Asnieres, the house of Lulli has Sevres, the orangery and the house of the Dawn has Sceaux, with admirable parks, without forgetting the beautiful barracks of Swiss of Rueil. The end of the century affirms its taste of research has Neuilly, has Courbevoie, has Ville of Avray. The First Empire has leaves the memories of the two enemies to us: the decoration of Malmaison for Napoleon and the park of the Valley-with-Wolves for Chateaubriant. But it is perhaps the modern architecture which wrote in the department of the capital pages, from the house of Hennebique has Borough-the-Queen and the school of outdoor of Suresnes. For have one half-century, creators and technicians built on this ground of the churches, the schools, the hospitals, the residences, the libraries and especially the gigantic district which, symbol of our time, high around the roundabout of Defense.? Dimension painting, 18th century, artists (Fragonard, Hubert Robert) were inspire by our landscape, but it took all its resonance with Corot, child of City-in Avray, follow-up of Troyon, Paul Huet, Lepine. And one arrives at the glory of the Impressionism, which made edges of the Seine a famous area of the art of all times. Manet which spent its last summers has Bellevue and has Rueil, Monet, Renoir, Caillebotte, Berthe Morisot, Sisley indifferently painted two banks of the river, follow-ups of Seurat, which has immortalise the Large-Bowl and of Van Gogh, allured by the bridge of Asnieres. More close to us, Utrillo painted Guinguettes of Robinson and the last large landscape designer of the Hauts-de-Seine was Dunoyer de Segonzac, which, fifty years during, have rayon, brush in hand, around its house of Chaville. The last, we have says, because the time is not hardly any more to the landscape designers. But that can return.

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