Lozère is one of 83 french departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, in application of the law of December 22, 1789. It corresponds almost exactly (the canton of Saugues in less) to the former Diocese of Gévaudan, which was part of the former province of Languedoc.

Before the Roman conquest, the territory currently occupied by the Department of Lozere, was inhabited by the Celtic tribe of the Gaba'es, including Gabalum, today the city of Javols, formed the main city. It was a proud and independent people who bravait Rome in the middle of its inaccessible mountains, and whose submission was never full; the Gabales joined with the Allobroges against the Romans, and even, they continued to govern themselves, after having valiantly fought and honorably succumbed next to Vercingetorix. The reign of Augustus, the country of the Gabales was included in Aquitaine; Gabalum became the residence of a Governor who respected their freedom and their customs, opened a Roman road through the country, and built temples and individual buildings whose remains are still found. The region prospered, trade and industry has developed, its mines were operated with profits, and soon his wealth was such that it caused the greed of the Roman Governors; the abuses occurred and brought the reign of Tiberius, bloody revolts.

Saint Martial, or saint Séverin, the point is not historically established, brought into the country beneficial germs of Christianity from the early centuries of the Christian era; 250 years a.d., Gabalum who had taken the name of Anderitum became the seat of a suffragan bishopric of the metropolis of Bourges, and had several of his children enrolled in the martyrology. At the time of Bas-Empire, the Visigoths it wrested a weakness of the Roman emperors; they were expelled in turn by Clovis, King of the Franks, and it was then that the writers named this country pagus Gabalitanus, whose corruption was Gévaudan.

During the Merovingian period and carlovingienne, Gévaudan was administered by individual counties, of which some were pillagers and bloodthirsty; He was soon joined in the Aquitaine and came under the rule of the counts of Toulouse, and one of them, Raymond de Saint-Gilles, donated it to the Bishop of Mende. but, at the same time, Gilbert, husband of the Countess of Provence, declared himself hereditary County of Gévaudan; his daughter married Raymond Berenguer, count of Barcelona, who claimed the rights of his wife against the Bishop of Mende; thence, struggles and discussions, and in 1161 the Bishop Adalbert, in order to join the King of France, alla find Louis the younger and made him tribute of Gévaudan; but this influence would have been little actual, in 1225, James, King of Aragon and count of Barcelona, not is was decided to cede the Gévaudan to the Bishop of Mende, while retaining most of the advantages of the County, that saint Louis, in 1125, purchased in a definitive manner. The Bishop of Mende retained the sovereignty of the country until the beginning of the 14th century, but not against the Kings of France, he gave much to Philippe le Bel, who left him the purely honorary title of count of Gévaudan.

The history of the Gévaudan not long before then get confused with that of the Languedoc; during the 14th and 15th centuries, the country was ravaged by the English as most of the French provinces, and then undergoes the religious wars that were atrocious. the Cévennes had given asylum to the Waldensians and Albigensians pursued by fanatics; a large number of victims perished; In 1562, the end pushed protestants took up arms, seized Marvejols, Quézac, Mende, and Chirac that they could not keep; the promulgation of the edict of Nantes, acknowledging their political existence, gave them some tranquillity; they remained faithful to the laws of the Kingdom, they were patient against conducted deaf and special hatred bigotry raised against them, but the revocation of the Act due to Henri IV, brought into question their existence. After said of the Vivarais and du Dauphiné, those of the Vivarais, pushed by the abuses, the tortures and murders, finally revolted, exerted terrible reprisals, and began the bloody insurrection of the Camisards. It took Pierce roads across the country, and take whole armies to reduce a handful of poor people, that the excesses of the misfortune turned into heroes.

Until 1789, Gévaudan was particular States which took place annually in Mende or Marvejols under the chairmanship of the Bishop.

In 1790, when the new division of the french territory, the Department of Lozère was formed with the greater part of the former Gévaudan.

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