Mont Saint-Michel, Abbey and dependencies
Originally, the Bay of mont-st-michel was a wooded plain : Scissy forest.
Invasion by the waters was either gradually, or as a result of the great tide of 709 (according to legend). The delimitation of the site remains ambiguous (advances in the sea, silting up of the Bay, moving from the bed of the rivers...).
During the pagan era, the site is considered as a sacred land where, in Celtic mythology, the souls of the dead were transported in an invisible boat. It is called the island of "Mont-Tombe.
The wonder of the Mont St michel
The grand and very remarkable building of the 13th century that distinction to Mont-St-Michel known is the wonder, and that deserves this name when it considered its boldness, its elegance and its position on a steep rock, presents a wall with more than 33 m tall, flanked by fifteen foothills and illuminated by three floors of windows. It is, says the Irene in the text monograph du Mont-St-Michel, published by Mr. Bourdon and Bouët, a wall of prodigious growth.
- The corner of the Eastern gable appeared in this building stands a crowned polygonal turret with a slender roof, which served as a stair.
- The building is divided into three stages:
- The first containing shops or underground rooms
The second, which can be considered as ground floor when it was entering the cloister and which contained the refectory of the monks, beautiful vaulted room divided longitudinally by mono-cylindriques columns which form two naves and support the fallout from the vaults
Finally the third floor, which served as a dormitory. This building is not earlier than the 13th century, examination of the details of the Interior (columns, capitals, moldings) confirms this opinion, and it seems absolutely impossible to admit, as has been said, that this beautiful building was built in then first half of the 12th century.
(ndw: the dates are by nature always a delicate problem according to the editor of the region and what we imagine not.) Therefore, take notes on the dating of a building for what they are to know a appréciassions may change subsequently. Especially in the context of ancient sources used by this site and knowing that some extensive studies were sometimes performed subsequently with ways not equally available in the 18th, 19th and early 20th century when it was written the text presented).
The dormitory is here above the refectory, which does not usually takes place elsewhere in the 13th century; But besides there sometimes exceptions to the General rules in the layout and the destination of the parts, do not forget that the Abbey of Mont-St-Michel, sitting on a steep rock, was unable to develop in accordance with the ordinary plans: it took lack space, establish the refectory and dormitory at the eastern end of the cloister where usually stood there Chapterhouse, and extend parallel to the Church, i.e. from West to East, the splendid building of the wonder that we just look...
Another oddity from the limited space still left by the sea: the cloister lies on one of the vaulted, named room of the Knights, who perhaps in the original were used for the reception of guests, and in any case dating back, in large part, from the 13th century, as the cloister and there wonder. It is a large room that three rows of mono-cylindriques columns divide into four naves: these columns are octagons bases and capitals covered foliage quite characteristic of the middle of the 13th century.
- Title: Primer or Rudiment of archaeology
- Author: Caumont, Arcisse de (1801-1873)
- Publisher: F. White-Hamid (Caen)
- Date of publication: 1869
A few dates
- 708 saint Aubert, Bishop of Avranches, sees the Archangel saint Michel, who ordered him to raise an oratory. Mount became a place of pilgrimage and takes the name of "Saint-michel-au-peril-de-la-mer".
- 710 old place privileged of Druidism, devoted to the Archangel by Aubert, Bishop of Avranches.
- 933 attachment to Normandy from the diocese of Avranches; Mont-Saint-Michel becomes Norman.
- 966 at the request of the Duke of Normandy, Richard 1, monks founded a benedictine Abbey at Mont-St.-Michel.
- 992. first fire of the monastery.
- 1017 to 1144 a church is built at the top of the rock. A Carolingian building called Notre-Dame-sous-Terre (built in the 8th century) is used as crypt to support the platform on which stand the past three bays of the Romanesque nave.
- 1023 beginning of construction of the Romanesque Abbey Church.
- 1064 William, Duke of Normandy, passes the river Couesnon. illustration on a tapestry of Bayeux.
- 1103 collapse of the North wall of the nave of the Abbey Church.
- 1112 fire of the monastery.
- 1138 fire of the monastery.
- 1144 consecration of the choir of the Basilica of Saint-Denis, first Gothic building.
- 1154 Robert of Torigni was elected Abbot of Mont-St.-Michel.
- 1203 to 1228 construction of the wonder
- 1204 fire of the monastery.
- 1204 reattachment of the Duchy of Normandy to the royal domain by Philippe Auguste.
- 1228 completion of the wonder.
- 1256-first pilgrimage of Saint-Louis to Mont-St.-Michel.
- 1300 fire of the monastery.
- 1350 fire of the monastery.
- 1374 fire of the monastery.
- 1421 collapse of the Romanesque choir of the Abbey Church.
- 1433 fire of the monastery.
- 1434 the English (established on the islet of Tombelaine) are repulsed by the 119 Knights of Mont-St.-Michel, under the leadership of Governor Louis of Estouteville (1400-1464).
- 1446 to 1523 the church choir is replaced by a flamboyant Gothic choir, on a new crypt.
- 1450 end of the hundred years war
- 1469. a royal order of chivalry of St. Michael is introduced by Louis XI
- 1509 fire of the monastery.
- 1518 first pilgrimage of François 1st.
- 1523 completion of the Gothic choir of the Church.
- 1594 fire of the monastery.
- 1622 introduction to mount from the reform of Saint-Maur (the monks of Saint-Maur will disrupt the architecture and the Organization of the Abbey).
- 1776 fire of the monastery.
- 1780 the last three spans of the nave and the Romanesque façade are demolished.
- 1790 the constituent Assembly vote the Civil Constitution of the clergy. The monks left the Abbey.
- 1793 le Mont was dubbed the "mount-free"; the Abbey is transformed in prison.
- 1835 visit of Viollet - le - Duc.
- 1834 fire of the monastery.
- 1863 Napoleon III made close the prison installed in the Abbey.
- 1874 le Mont-St.-Michel is classified historical monument, beginning of restoration
- 1877 to 1879 the dike for access to the mount.
- 1897 construction of the Bell Tower (by Victor Petitgrand), topped by a dominated arrow of a statue of saint Michel (at 157 m), work of the sculptor Emmanuel Frémiet (1824-1910).
- 1897 completion of the constructed arrow
- 1922 Abbey is made to worship.
- 1960 restoration of the original nucleus which is a Carolingian sanctuary
- 1969 Foundation of a new monastic community that moved into the Abbey House.
- 1979 listing the mount and its Bay by UNESCO on the list of world heritage of humanity.
- 2001. the brothers and sisters of the monastic fraternities of Jerusalem are installed in the old abbatial.
- 2003. in July, authority for the dredging of the site to "restore its maritime character.
Crédit photo : Normandie Héritage (Abbey and dependencies, le mont st michel)
Abbey and dependencies, The large and very remarkable building of the 13th century that distinction to Mont-St-Michel known is the wonder, and that deserves this name when considering its boldness, its elegance and its position on a steep rock, presents a wall with more than 33 m tall, flanked by fifteen foothills and illuminated by three floors of windows. le mont st michel, manche
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Abbaye et dépendances, le mont st michel
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