Morbihan

History

Currently occupied by the Department of Morbihan, the territory was inhabited before the Roman invasion, by the armorican tribe of the Veneti; This population consisted mostly of daring sailors, who were wearing their warships, and who bravely resisted the troops of César; but defeated by the Roman galleys, they had to pay their blood a heroic resistance against the invaders.

Subjected to Rome, the country of the Veneti was then largely to its skilful donations; numerous and useful routes plied, and it is perhaps of all the departments of the France, who has retained the more testimonials of the druidic period and the Roman occupation; We can even say that the number is infinite. Under the new administration, the country was shopping, and residents resumed their marine habits.

Christianity emerged in the 4th century, and 465, valves, seat of a bishopric, lives a Council to meet within its walls. From the 6th century, the counties of valves became independent, and remained barbarians, they became the terror of the surrounding countries. the authority of the Carlovingiens was recognized by them, but since Charlemagne until the 11th century, they were perpetually at war with the counties of Rennes. At that time, Henri II, King of England, invaded the region and seized valves; the mid-14th century, after various alternatives, the English were still masters of this city, and were driven out by Olivier de Clisson and Beaumanoir.

After having both excited the envy of the Kings of England, this province was coveted by the Dukes of Brittany, and the last of them, François II, establishes the residence of Parliament. Throughout the period that followed, valves, which focuses the history of the Department, became flourishing; but during the reign of Charles VIII, she had to spend with any Brittany into the hands of the King of France, and it is in this city that was voted the final meeting of Brittany to France in 1532. Since that time, the country was little tested by religious wars or political dissensions which disturbed the Kingdom. During the Revolution, the peasants rebelled to the voice of their cures, and they failed in their attempts against valves; but the city, surprised by Cadoudal, in the year VIII of the Republic, was taken over by Republicans. After the disastrous case of Quiberon, the emigrants were shot in Vannes, in 1795.

In 1790, at the time when the France was divided into departments, the Morbihan formed part of Basse-Bretagne.

Geography

Orography hydrography

The main relief of Morbihan is indicated, in its northern part, by detached foothills of the black mountains, which emerge through the boroughs of Ploërmel and Napoleonville, and the highest point not exceeding 180 metres above the sea level.

The Morbihan Department, located on the side of the Atlantic, belongs to e., basin of the Vilaine, and the o., the basins of the river Blavet and the Auray, small coastal rivers that water the western part.

The Vilaine, which takes its source in the hills of the Mayenne Department Juvigné, crosses the Department to which it gave its name, separates a moment the bottom of Morbihan Loire, between in the latter by e. the arrondissement of Vannes, passes under the bridge of the Roche-Bernard, and flows into the Atlantic, Penestin, after a total course of 220 kilometers. During its 42 kilometres of routes in Morbihan, the main tributary of the Vilaine is Oust which takes its source in the hills alongside Gorley - North, enters it in the Morbihan region by the NW corner. Borough of Ploërmel, bathes Saint-Samson, merges with the Nantes to Brest canal, flows through Rohan, Josselin, Malestroit, and ends at 2 kilometres to the underside of Redon, after a course of 150 km, during which it absorbs the Larhon which ends at Saint-Samson, it have that comes from the Côtes-du-Nord, the Niniam which bathes the Trinity, Mohon, Groix-Helléan, and is grows from Leverin and the Livetthe Claye which comes from the canton of Saint-Jean-Brévelay and bathes Bohal, Aff coming from the canton of Plélan in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, passes near Guer, and finishes downstream of Glerac, and the art that comes from the Township of Granchamp, in the arrondissement of Vannes, and ends in Redon.

The Blavet, which takes its source in the pond of this name, located in the Department of Côtes-du-Nord, between that of Morbihan, by n. of the Borough of Napoleonville, watered Napoleonville, Hennebont, and will be thrown in the Ocean, forming the Bay of Lorient, after a total of 145 kilometres, including 95 in Morbihan; During this course, its main tributaries are:

  • the Sar coming from the municipality of silfiac (), to the n. of the Borough of Napoleonville;
  • The Evel being watered Baud and enlarges the Lignan and of Tarun;
  • the Scorff which takes its source in Côtes-du-Nord, by n. enters the Borough of Napoleonville, bath Langcelan, Guéménée, Pontscorff, and ends at Lorient which he formed the port, after a course of 70 kilometers, increased by the Dourdu and the Eerlustan.

The Auray, which was born in this Township of Grand-Champ, bathes Auray, and empties into the Morbihan, after having absorbed the Sale.

Ponds and marshes are enough on the maritime fringe of Morbihan.

Climate

The climate of Morbihan is mild and damp; the temperature varies frequently during spring and autumn; ponds and marshes on the sides give rise to unhealthy fumes, that make this part of the Department very unhealthy. The prevailing wind is from the S.W.., which blows from the sea.

Area Population

The Morbihan area is 679 781 hectares, and its population of 501 084; who makes about 80 inhabitants per square kilometre. This population increased by 99 869 souls since the beginning of the century, and since the last census of 1860, this increase was of 14 580 souls. Industrialists and traders make up almost half of this population; There are 172 000 farmers, 30 000 inhabitants engaged in the liberal professions, and 30 000 without profession.

The inhabitant of Morbihan has great domestic virtues, which are the extreme purity of morals, honesty, compassion for the misfortunes of others, and the resignation in his own misfortunes, pushed up the stoicism; his judgment is right, his common sense is recognized, but it has neither natural mind nor vivid imagination, and it shows an extreme indecision, when it comes to a party in its own affairs, and little confidence in the advice of others. These various comments apply especially to the inhabitants of the campaigns, because in cities, old Breton originality disappears from day to day.

The French language is most commonly used in the major centres of the Department; but the campaigns have retained the use of Bas-Breton, primitive language, which still remains in all its purity Celtic.

Agriculture

Agriculture of the Morbihan region breaks down as follows: 260 600 hectares of cropland, 63 500 of natural grasslands, vineyards, pastures, moors, heaths and patis 274 000 1700, and 73 500 wood-, forests and uncultivated land. The property is spread over 2 million parcels, owned by 120 000 owners.

Morbihan is an agricultural Department, that the drying of the marshes, some valleys, drainage sanitation, make very-rich one day, turning, its sterile landes in productive grasslands; agriculture, long retarded, is, every year, further progress, under the influence of the tribal and agricultural societies. There is a farm school in Trécesson in commune of Campénéac in the Borough of Ploërmel.

The cereal production prevails over local consumption; buckwheat is grown on a large part of the territory and adapts well this particular schist soil; the diverse value of grain exceeds common year, 35 million francs. Other cultures are annually nearly 6 million francs; These are hemp, particularly cultivated in the boroughs of valves and Ploërmel on an area of 5,000 hectares, flax, potatoes which are harvested 1300 thousand hectolitres, Apple trees and pear trees, whose fruits are used in the manufacture of 441 000 hectolitres of cider for a value of 2 million francs, vines occupying only 1700 hectares approximately in the arrondissement of Vanneschestnut groves, forests, including the main tree species are oak, beech and pine, coastal marine plants, gorse and Broom of the landes. The value of pasture, native grasslands, is approximately 9 million francs.

Student of domestic animals form a sizeable branch of the agricultural industry, and fairly common species, generally, tend to improve. There are approximately 47 000 horses, mainly Breton race, 315 000 beasts with horns, race Breton also, 220 000 estimated sheep for their wool, 69 000 pigs, 84 000 hives of bees, 8000 goats, goats and kids, etc. Complaints and the Woods hold game in abundance, and aquatic birds are very numerous and very varied on the coast; the sides are frequented by fish-rich herring, sardines, soles, rays, etc.

The gross income of domestic animals is 27 million francs, and the total value of agricultural production annually exceeding 50 million.

Mines quarries

The Department of Morbihan is mainly formed of primitive land and transition; its metal deposits consist of oxidized iron and lead sulfide, which is found close to Band, in the Borough of Napoleonville, silver, pewter, etc. It operates shale, sandstone, granite, and slate quarries, rock crystal, from the Earth to Potter, sand, etc., on various points of the territory.

The main thermal sources of the Department are ferruginous; they are located at Napoleonville in Hennebont, Ploërmel, etc but are little active and little frequented.

Industry trade

The Department of Morbihan is less manufacturing and agricultural, and the industry is still poorly developed. There are a few manufactures linens and woolens, cotton mills, lace and chemicals factories, tanneries, paper mills, glassworks, of chapelleries, workshops of construction for ships, the blast furnaces of the forges producing iron wood, etc.; It operates 12 iron mining giving approximately 55 000 metric centners of ore, of slate quarries, mines Tin, and the salt marshes on the coast whose yield can be estimated at 66 000 metric quintals of salt.

Trade focuses on grain, horses, butter, salted meat, skins, flax, honey, wax, etc.

The movement of shipping occupies 27 ports, which are those of Lorient, Vannes, Auray, of Sarzeau, Palace, Belle-Croix, Port-Louis, etc. Sail and steam navigation employs annually 500 ships approximately 60 000 tonnes, and cabotage, 14 000 ships 375 000 tonnes; fishing of sardine also holds a number of boats.

Roads channels railways

Morbihan is served by 7 long Imperial roads of 576 kilometers, 14 departmental roads 306 kilometres in length, and various paths of great communication, common or vicinal interest, whose total development is 3140 kilometres. Rivers and canals are navigable on 313 km.

Morbihan is crossed by the Nantes to Brest canal, which starts on the Loire in Nantes, back the Vilaine up to its confluence with him Oust, on the border E. of the arrondissement of Vannes, enters the Borough of Ploërmel, past at Malestroit, Josselin, Rohan, enters the Borough of Napoleonville, dates back the Blavet and will finish on Alder which is navigable to Brest River(, after a total development of 35) kilometers, of which slopes are redeemed by 232 locks. The Blavet, channeled from Napoleonville, is navigable up to the Ocean.

The Department of Morbihan is served:

by the junction of Savemy in Chateaulin, which belongs to the network of Orléans, with stations in Saint-Jacut, Malansac, Questembert, Elven, Vannes, Sainte-Anne, Auray, Landevant, Hennebont, Lorient and Gestel. by the subphylum of Auray in Napoleonville, the same network, with stations in Pluvignier, Baud and Saint-Nicolas.

All of these various railways is 166 kilometres.

Famous men

The remarkable characters born in Morbihan, include: the Constable De Richemont. the Duke Henri De Rohan; Lesage; the captain's du Couedic; Bisson; the conventional Lequinio; Georges Cadoudal; the admirals Bouvet, AlleMant, etc.; the Trochu agronomist; the County of Kergorlay; Leperdit, Mayor of valves in 1793; etc.; and contemporary: the Brizeux poet; man from State Bharti; the Victoa mass composer; the Jules Simon publicist; Dr. Guépin; General TroChu and De Lourmel; etc.

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