Hospital Saint-Sauveur, French Heritage monument to Lille
The story of a hospital and its successive developments, brings to the study of an era, the most useful lessons. Each of the phases of its existence is a social necessity, and borrows its more contemporary events lives interest.
When the Countess Jeanne of Constantinople founded Hôpital Saint-Jean-Baptiste and Saint-Sauveur, it became by the death of his father Baldwin of Constantinople, Countess of Flanders and Hainaut. His union with Fernand of Portugal, was not happy. This prince, as a condition of this alliance, had to surrender to Philippe-Auguste, King of France, the towns of Saint-Omer and area; but married barely protested this dismemberment of States. The war was lit, and soon King Philippe seized the cities of Flanders and Lille, where for his conquest particularly, he had built the fort of the Reigneaux. But Lille, tired of the yoke, drove the French and opened their doors to the count Fernand who had endorsed his cause Emperor Otto and the King of England.
Philippe-Auguste soon avenge this contempt: it came to besiege Lille. If in being made master, he set the fire and blood, and following an author contemporary fire was so violent that the marshland on which the city was built, burned himself for several days (1212). Defeated in the plains of Bouvines, on July 14, 1214, Fernand was taken prisoner in France, and imprisoned in the Tower of the Louvre where he remained for twelve years.
It is at this time in our history, and while the city of Lille, after these cruel tests, began to come out of its ruins, the Countess Jeanne thought to found a hospital. She chooses out of the city, near the Saint-Sauveur Church, which existed for about a century, a vast field where it erected the first buildings. It proposed to fifty beds, but the lack of water forced him to give up his business. Restricting its projects, it gave sufficient goods to receive 6 to 8 patients.
Maintenance of a bed for a year, was then valued at one hundred sols.
Encouraged by the Countess, the inhabitants of Lille began to cover housing the Saint-Sauveur area, which is located outside the city. the limits of this side were drawn by the said ditch of Comines bridges and the fort of the Reigneaux.
In 1219, the Countess Jeanne wanting to attract the blessings of heaven on the institution she had created, founded three chapels, one in honour of St. Catherine in the Church of St. Peter, the second en l'honneur de Sainte-Marie, near his palace, and the third, in the Saint-Sauveur, Lille hospital, and so that divine service there was properly celebrated, she applied various annuities and royalties at this office.
This time, the funds of the hospital Saint-Sauveur begins to grow donations and bequests that are made. The inventory of titles and parts of the hospital, kept in the administration of the hospices, reports a significant number of donations. The chapel which had been annexed, also became a cause of many benefits, by the foundation of obits and masses in perpetuity in honor of the donor.
In 1233, the Dean of the chapter of St. Peter received the Countess Jeanne and mission of the Bishop of Tournai to draw up the statutes of the rule to impose to the brothers and sisters, loaded, in equal numbers, said hospital, as well as for the infirm poor treatment and pilgrims. After writing this work, he decided that a Canon of the chapter of St. Peter would be each month delegated to the Government of the hospital Saint-Sauveur.
The same year died at Noyon, prince Fernando, husband of the Countess Jeanne. Wanting to leave a souvenir and attach his name to the hospital raised by the generosity of the Countess, he bequeathed by his will, dated of August 1233, audit institution, one hundred soils of annuity, to establish in perpetuity, a new bed for a poor man. The Countess, grateful of this solicitude, confirmed in September, this liberality.
The Countess Jeanne widowed, applied all his care to improve the lives of his subjects. In may 1235, it granted the settlement of the magistrate in Lille as it is kept until the revolution of 1789. At the same time her eyes were constantly towards Saint-Sauveur. It provided in April 1236, the chaplain of the chapel Saint-Sauveur in the Church of Saint-Pierre, to go to the hospital, say and sing the mass in a proper manner, hear confessions and administering the sacraments for the convenience of the sick poor.
The Countess Jeanne married in second marriage, Thomas of Savoy (1237), whom she had two children.
In 1243, always concerned about the fate of the unhappy, she transformed into hospital, his own Palace. It was the realization of a thought she had for a long time and which it had laid the first Foundation, the year 1227. Public recognition has kept the memory, baptizing name Hotel relating to hospital-Countess.
This virtuous Princess whose benefits are the richest part of the current domain of the hospices de Lille, died in 1244. His body was deposited in the Abbey of Marquette, which she had founded.
Marguerite, sister, succeeded him.
During this first period, hospital Saint-Sauveur being outside the city, the buildings were repeatedly burned and destroyed as a result of the wars that apparently the country.
It is in one of these fires that disappeared the tracks of its foundation.
In 1288, the County Guy enlarges the enclosure of Lille and surrounded by ditches all the new district. This Chamber was drawn along the hospital Saint Sauveur that proceeded it, by removing a portion of the land had been granted to it by the Countess Jeanne, and defining it in its current boundaries between the Saint-Sauveur Church, the cemetery and the gap of the city. The noble Tower, last remnant of those times, was raised at the corner of the bastion, which was the main defense.
It was a terrible time that one we are experiencing: the quarrels of the counts of Flanders with the King of France, brought, in 1296, Philippe-le-Bel under the walls of Lille. After the strongest resistance, the inhabitants were forced to capitulate. County Guy bowed to its winner, and Flanders was reunited in 1299, to the Crown of France. Jaques Châtillon, the King had left for Governor, made build Lille, in 1301, the castle of Kortrijk.
Mid disorders who waved the country, the people of war plundered the abbeys, and ravaged the countryside. The men and women religious, to avoid these perils, had in the Interior of the cities of refuge where they were sheltering with their wealth during the war; Therefore, Loos Abbey owned until the revolution a refuge in the street which bears his name. There was also the refuge of the Abbey of Cysoing, etc.
Hôpital Saint-Sauveur who owned property in Thumesnil, Ronchin, Annappes, Marcq-en and the suburb of patients had experienced great loss during the last war. In order to prevent the return, granted to the King Philippe-le-Bel, in 1301, hospital Saint-Sauveur, letters of backup for people and goods in dependent, and it confirmed all the previous privileges.
Disorders that was Flanders in the years leading up to and following the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle (April 18, 1304), hired the King of France Philippe, to renew September 1st, 1308 orders protection due to persons and property of the hospital Saint-Sauveur.
But such requirements do not appear to have produced great effect, because twenty years after (8 February 1328) we find the same King Philippe, recommending again the bailli de Lille and his lieutenant, to prevent that to allow any oppression or insult to the Prioress and the Sisters of the hospital Saint-Sauveur.
Regardless of the property which had been donated to the hospital by the Countess Jeanne, she him had also granted certain privileges and exemptions of rights on objects of consumption. Therefore, in 1365, Percheraux from Gent, chevalier of the King, bailli of Lille and guardian of the hospital, established in a document kept by the Chamber of Auditors of Lille, after information is made, it was proved that the hospital was free of all maltotes and debts whatsoever; Accordingly he ordered the receiver of the maltote of wheat, to return a pledge that he had been give to an alleged right on wheat from the hospital.
January 25, 1385, we are still in the inventory of the titles of the hospital Saint-Sauveur, backup letters issued to the religious. Priory, and sisters of the hospital Saint-Sauveur, by Philip of Burgundy, count of Flanders, son of the King of France. Finally, by letters-patent of September 3, 1393, the same prince said this hospital come from the foundation of its predecessors, and be free of the seat on the wine, principal to his receiver and aldermen of Lille, to stop all proceedings in this regard.
Other letters of this prince, of July 13, 1397, whereby he fixed three tails of wine per year, the consumption of the hospital. There were only twenty sick beds.
Securities confirming the privileges of the hospital at the time, and coins abound. Act of Jean, sire de Croix, Lille bailiff and keeper of the hospital Saint-Sauveur on, after do information, this hospital was free of rights of pavement; certificate issued in 1483, by Jacques de Quelu'un, notary public, that the hospital is free under its foundation of all tonlieux, passages, vinages, etc.
It is in the course of the fourteenth century the monks of the hospital Saint Sauveur ceased to be attached thereto; the Augustinians remained only responsible, therefore, care to give to patients. Hôpital Saint-Sauveur was not only intended to receive patients, he also gave asylum to the bourgeois who came to attach to finish their days. Numerous acts of donation note of such contracts. The most notable burghers would be treating illness. A sieur Jehan Dubosquiel, in recognition of the care which it was provided, gives February 19, 1424, the Prioress and nuns of the Hospital House and heritage Street Saint-Sauveur.
Sometimes the donation was designed, maintenance of an insane or innocent. It is 1 August 1416, the sieur and dame Higot bequeath audit hospital, two houses, street of Croquet, to enjoy after their death, the responsibility of feed, lifetime, their son Jean, innocent.
In 1419 a great debate arose between the nuns of the hospital and the Bishop of Tournai on the appointment of the Priory. The first claimed to have the right to proceed by way of election, the latter maintained on the contrary that alone was the right of appointment. The issue became so serious that the parties submitted their dispute to the arbitration of Pope Martin. After a thorough investigation which were heard various people credible, both ecclesiastical and secular, the Bishop of Tournai was obliged to recognize that the only nuns owned the right to elect their Priory. He said that he objected to that in the future they go to to do so accordingly.
Roughly similar difficulties appear to be high in 1457 between the chapter of St. Peter and the master, Priory, and convent of the hospital Saint-Sauveur. A report drawn up in December 1457, notes the conditions laid down for the exercise of the patronage of the chapter and the election of a Priory.
However a few years ago, Jehan, Bishop of Tournai, had drawn up a regulation on the ecclesiastical status of the hospital Saint-Sauveur and its administration, and spiritual than temporal. It was written that in addition to the number of six nuns, there may be two brothers, a priest, the other lai or covered.
This regulation, August 6, 1453, was approved and confirmed by a bull of pope Callixtus III, of May 12, 1455.
This precious document tells us about the State of the hospital at this time. So that the sisters could be sufficient for general service, it was necessary that the number of beds was extremely limited. 6 Or 8 in 1216, at the time of the Foundation by the Countess Jeanne, he could hardly grow in the absence of necessary resources for its expenditure. The sick and pilgrims should not exceed 20-30, to judge by the following fact: A sieur Ghent who had bequeathed his house to receive 13 elderly of both sexes, set to 6 or 8 the number of sisters who would treat them. The rest do not lose sight that the hospital was not the only one that existed in Lille. Charity of princes, and that individuals had multiplied the asylums, and apart from the Countess hospital, the most important of all, there was a large number of hospitals, hospices and maladreries where all the suffering were aid and assistance.
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After Jean Rosemarie which had been build in Lille, the palais Rihour in 1407, and who was assassinated on the bridge of Montereau (10 September 1419) Flanders passed into the hands of his son, Philippe, 23 years old.
This prince which all historians like to bless the memory, and who ruled Flanders from 1419 to 1467, had earned the name of Philippe-le-Bon, by caring for Lille and generosity. Hôpital Saint-Sauveur was not forgotten, and 6 may 1464 gave him a mark of his protection, by publishing in the streets of the city, the letters of backup and hospital privileges by his predecessors.
At Philippe-le-Bon succeeded the count of Charolais, Charles-le-bold, his son.
At that time, between the hospital Saint-Sauveur and the Church existed, as it was customary, a cemetery. Priory wanting to expand the hospital and build a new room, and master obtained from the city the concession of land lying along the cemetery said. This Act which bears the date of February 7, 1482, is the first trace of expansion we meet since the foundation of the hospital.
The Saint-Sauveur district began at the same time with people. The rutted and muddy streets were a constant cause of noxious miasma. In 1475, for the first time, the rue Saint-Sauveur was paved. The magistrate offered Dimes of the rod, to those who would pave the latter. At the end of this street was a door leading to the road to Valenciennes Lille. It was suppressed in 1595 and demolished in 1674, during the reconstruction of part of the fortifications destroyed during the siege of 1667.
In the Church of Saint-Sauveur hospital, was a chapel dedicated to Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, and which was the subject of a pious pilgrimage. In 1488, the vicars general of Tournai granted indulgences to those who attend this Chapel.
On February 27, 1495 such indulgences were granted to the Priory, sisters and poor sick of there House, by Peter, Bishop of Nazareth (excluding Lille); and later, in 1562 Pope Pius IV issued the letters patent, with erection of the brotherhood of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Church therein; This institution subsequently became one of the most important in the city.
At the beginning of the sixteenth century (1507), the city of Lille came under the rule of Emperor Charles v. This prince after vowing to observe the privileges of the city, took to task to introduce all possible improvements in its interior. In 1531, he delivered the letters patent for the foundation of the common purse of the poor. We have few details to reproduce about Saint-Sauveur hospital, except for the intervention of the Emperor, August 1, 1522, in a debate between the Priory and the Bishop of Tournai about the accountability of the hospital. The Bishop of Tournai claiming supremacy, wanted that the accounts were made before him; the nuns he challenged this right; the Emperor gave reason to the nuns, and urged him and his officers to withdraw from this argument.
It was before the Board of Auditors that this verification should be carried out. And, indeed, on 12 October 1536, said Chamber allowed Jacques Lefèvre, master of the hospital Saint-Sauveur, to increase the number of sisters to ten. October 9, 1537, the Bishop of Tournai approved this increase.
In 1548, the current position of the reduced there was no; the Sahuteaux Street ran from street of patients or Paris, to that of Saint-Sauveur; wanting to expand the terreaux and walls of the city, the magistrate of Lille bought or rather expropriated twenty houses of the Sahuteaux Street, belonging to the Saint-Sauveur hospital, and gave him April 6, 1548, in Exchange, land and houses located near the porte Saint-André.
We are reminded that in 1219, the Countess Jeanne had founded Hôpital Saint-Sauveur a chapel in honor of saint John the Evangelist. The income made by the founder were long insufficient for the maintenance of the cult; in order to remedy this dire situation, the Bishop of Tournai, the chapter of St. Peter and the Chamber of Auditors of Lille, allowed, on 8 August 1572, the meeting of the so-called Chapel master of the hospital Saint-Sauveur.
This church was repeatedly honoured in a very special way by the sovereign pontiffs. Therefore, on 4 July 1623, Pope Grégoire XV granted a plenary indulgence to the faithful who visit the hospital Saint-Sauveur Church the day of saint Jean door-Latin, and that in 1633 Pope Urban VIII granted special indulgences, the brotherhood of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, in the Church of the hospital Saint-Sauveur.
Source: Public assistance in Lille: L'Hopital Saint-Sauveur by Aimé Houzé de L'Aulnoit 1866.
(Hospital Saint-Sauveur, lille)
Hospital Saint-Sauveur, « Hospital Saint-Sauveur » is a construction of the city of Lille (France, Nord). Hospital Saint-Sauveur, French Heritage monument to Lille lille, nord
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Hôpital Saint-Sauveur, lille
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Ancien Hospital St Sauveur
Hôpital Saint-Sauveur, lille
Description of this building by pierre bastien :
Ancien Hospital St Sauveur
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