Paris

Paris, the capital of the Kingdom, and capital of the Seine, formed part of the former province of île de France Department, relates:

Gules, the ancient ship of money, knocking on waves; the true head of France.

The city of Paris was in possession of these arms long before that Ordinance of the Commissioners of the Council, dated 2 February 1699, had legally laid down them. They are found, such as we give them, on a medal of Louis XII. Fr. Ménétrier, repeating, according to the authors who preceded him, that they have been granted to the aldermen of the capital by Philippe-Auguste in 1190, time of the creation of these municipal magistrates, adds that they put the figure of a ship "because the island's Palace, or is the Cathedral, has this form." Others have assumed, quite free, this vessel was the attribute of Isis, whose cult would have been brought by Egyptians and Greeks on the banks of the Seine, prior to the Roman invasion. But Félibien, in his dissertation on the origin of the Town Hall of Paris, seems to demonstrate well otherwise satisfactorily, that the figure of the ship, or, more accurately, the ancient boat that we see on these weapons, is only emblem which existed on the seal of the corporation of merchants, which preceded the aldermen in the administration of the city, corporation entitled the commodity of waterbecause Paris trade, already considerable, almost exclusively was through the Seine, and which already existed under the name of Nautae parisiaci, time of the Emperor Tiberius, as evidenced by a monument found in 1710 in excavations made under the choir of Notre-Dame. Legend: commodity of water of Paris, remained on the municipal seal under Charles VI.

The capital of the Celtic-Belgian tribe of the Parisii, Lutetia (Lutetia), whose name seems to have been formed from the Latin Lutum, mud, because Marsh, which has averaged it was still, at the time of the complete saplings, only a village occupying even not any of the île de la Cité. Burned by its inhabitants, who were being raised against Roman rule, this village was rebuilt and fortified by César. In the fourth century, Julien, being Governor of Gaul, made Paris his favourite residence. In 465, Chilperic I drove the Romans, and thirty years later, Clovis established the seat of his Government. But it was no longer, under the last Kings of the first race, that the capital of Neustria, and, under Charlemagne, as the capital of a county which was assembled later. under Charles the bald, the Duchy of France. Paris, in the ninth century, strong had to suffer from the ravages of the Normans and the famine. Twelfth, Louis the big built around the suburbs extending on both banks of the Seine, an enclosure that tut soon replaced by a more extensive, due to Philippe-Auguste. The University of Paris, the first that there has been in Europe, was founded around the year 1200, and shortly after that time, it began to distinguish the city itself that occupied the island, the city which extended on the right bank, and the University District that was built on the left bank. The population growth became so rapid, in 1367, Charles V, when he shared Paris in sixteen districts, had to give him a new speaker, and in 1418 the plague helped destroy one hundred thousand people. Two years later, the capital of the France fell into the power of the King of England, who kept it until 1436. The history of Paris still shows in the next century, after the appalling Saint-Barthélemy, the day of the barricades in 1588, and the seats of 1589 and 1593; at the seventeenth, the Fronde disorders; in the 18th century, the most terrible scenes of revolutionary drama. In our century, after the brilliant passage of Napoleon, Paris seen twice enter its walls, 30 March 18 H, and July 7, 1815, the armies of Europe United. and finally in 1830, its inhabitants take three days into their hands the destinies of the France.

Source: Armorial national of France by Léon Vaïsse, ferry 1842/1860.

Paris, Lutetia Parisiorum, capital city of France, residence of the sovereign, sit of the government, the senate and the legislative body, of an archbishop's palace, court of appeal, Court of Auditors, of an imperial court, county court and communes, of a university academy, principal erudite bodies of the empire, general headquarter of the first army corps and the first military division, and place Chief of the department of the Seine, east locates, by 0? longitude, and 48? 50 ' Northern latitude, on the Seine, which crosses it Southern Is in North East.

Geography


The Pier.
Point Island Saint-Louis
Antoine-Louis Goblain

Divide by this river which forms there two islands, the island Saint-Louis and that of the ISCED, in two parts unequalled of which most considerable is in North

Paris east surrounds by an enclosure bastionnee, of 40 Kilometers circuit, built under Louis-Philippe of 1840 1846 have, and protegee by forts detach.

A law of June 16, 1859, setting has execution on January 1, 1860 has door the limits of the city to the enclosure fortifiee and removes the communes of Auteuil, Passy, the batignolles-Heaps, Montmartre, the Vault, the Villette, Belleville, Charonne, Bercy, Vaugirard and Grenelle. This same law has divides the city into 20 municipal districts, forming as much canton.

Architecture of the city

The boulevards, including one, recently established, the boulevard of Sebastopol, crosses almost all the city of North to the South, are one of the ornaments of this capital. It is bored approximately 1,500 streets, of which most beautiful, that of Rivoli, extends, in straight line or slightly inclined, over a length of 2.575 Mr. a score of passages. galleries covered in glazings offer. Among the public places, with the number of approximately 80, that of the Harmony is decorated of an Egyptian obelisk, the Vendome place of a column melted with the guns taken with the enemy and surmontee of the statue of Napoleon i, and places it Victories of an equestrian statue of Louis XIV.

The Seine is encaissee by splendid quays, plants of trees and with the bottom of which are ports. The Northern part and the Southern part of the city communicate between them by 22 bridges, whose last, the bridge of Solferino, was built in 1858-59.


Favras, making amend
opposite the church of Notre-Dame
Jean-Louis Prior (1759-1795)

The most remarkable churches are the metropolitan church of Notre-Dame whose first stone was posee in 1163, but whose vessel belongs to the beautiful ogival architecture of XIIIe century, in the island of the ISCED; Saint-Germain the Resident of Auxerre, Saint-Eustace, the Madeleine and Saint-Roch on Right Bank of the Seine Saint-Germain of Near, Saint-Etienne of the Mount, Holy-Clotilde, Saint-Thomas d' Aquin, Saint-Sulpice and Holy-Genevieve.

On left bank the palates which embellish Paris are those of Tileries and Louvre, joined together by Napoleon III in 1852-55, the Palais Royal, Elysium-Napoleon, the palates of industry, the Stock Exchange and the Bankruptcy court, on Right Bank, and the palates of the legislative Body, the legion of honor, the Council of State and the Court of Auditors, the institute, the Art schools and the Senate, on left bank, and the law courts in the island of the ISCED.

In addition to these palates, the town hall, the hotels of the ministries, Currency, Invalids, and a great number of private mansions, are remarkable monuments.

Paris has 4 arches of triumph, the porte Saint-Denis, porte Saint-Martin, the arc of the carousel and the arc of the star; 17 hospitals, which are ̃l' Hôtel-Dieu, Cochin, Necker, Beaujon, pity, the folding, Saint-Louis, the Salpêtrière and des Quinze-Vingts. 11 hospices, 6 halls, a large number of markets, 2097 public fountains, sewers vaulted masonry under most of the streets, and the catacombs.

Culture

The number of theaters is significant are the Opera House, the French Theatre, the Odeon, the Opéra-Comique and Théâtre Italien. Literary, scientific institutions and the arts, and major educational institutions are the Institute of France, Collège de France, faculties letters, sciences and theology, the ecole polytechnique, the ecole normale supérieure, the major State schools, law, medicine and surgery, back Ponts et chaussées, charters, and Oriental languages, Mines, fine art, Central School, the Jardin des Plantes or Museum of natural history, the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, school of the Carmelites, the Conservatory of music and declamation.le Conservatory of arts and crafts, the Athenaeum, the Asiatic Society and various other societies the five high school Louis-le-Grand, Napoleon, Saint-Louis, Charlemagne and Bonaparte, free of the spotted-design of Vaugirard Im institution, three colleges Rollin, Stanislaus and Chaptal, and the petit séminaire.

Main public libraries are the library Imperial containing 2000000 printed volumes and 200000 manuscripts, the library of Sainte-Geneviève, la Bibliothèque Mazarine, the library of the Sorbonne and the arsenal.

Museums, five in number, are those of the Louvre, the Luxembourg, the thermal baths and the Hôtel de Cluny, arty lerie and natural history.

Walks are boulevards, the Tuileries gardens and from Luxembourg, the Jardin des Plantes, the Champs-Elysées, the bois de Boulogne and the bois de Vincennes, recently converted into spacious English gardens.

The Parisian industry is very varied its main products are all objects of luxury, fashion and taste so-called blogs by Paris.

History

César tells us in his comments that he gathered the peoples of Gaul, year 53 of J. v., at Lutece, city of Paris, located on an island in the Seine. Christianity was brought at the end of the 1st century b. C., by saint Denis, who died a martyr and was the first bishop. This city had acquired the rank of city when the Emperor Julian there resided, 555-561, in a Palace whose remains are known as Palace of the baths. It was preserved when Attila ravaged Gaul, from the invasion of the Huns in 451, by sainte Geneviève, who became the Patron Saint. Clovis arrived in 486 and made it the capital of his Kingdom in 508. After his death, one of the four kingdoms formed the Division of his legacy was called Kingdom of Paris.

The last Merovingian does not usually remained in Paris, and, under Charlemagne, this city was more than the head of a County. The power of the counts of Paris grew in the 9th century, and they became Dukes of France at the same time as counties of Paris. This city was ravaged by the Normans in 845, 855-861, and supported a long siege, during which it was bravely defended by the Bishop Goslin and comte Eudes in 885.

The Ascension to the throne of Hugues Capet, count of Paris, in 987, assured the political dominance of the city. It was successively a great increase under Louis VII, Philippe Auguste, saint Louis and Philippe le Bel. She was from 1411 to 1418, the home of the factions of the Armagnacs and the Burgundians.

In 1420 it became prey to the English, who kept it until 1456, where it them was taken over by Charles VII. She suffered in the 16th century wars of religion, and was the scene of the massacre of Saint-Barthélémi in 1572, and the day of the barricades in 1588. Henri IV besieged it in 1589 and in 1593, and entered in 1594. Paris was stirred by the troubles of the Fronde, during the minority of Louis XIV, under which the Court and the seat of the Government were transferred to Versailles. The Revolution was inaugurated in Paris by the storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789. The federation of the Champ-de-Mars took place in 1790. The capture of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792, was followed by the abolition of the monarchy and the proclamation of the Republic the same year. Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette there were guillotined in 1795, the empire was established in 1804, the allies entered in 1814, and Louis XVIII there resumed possession of the Crown the same year.

Napoleon I is returned in March 1815, the allies, after the battle of Waterloo, the 7, and Louis XVIII read following July 8. The insurrection of 27, 28 and 29 July 1830 there overthrew the throne of the elder branch of the Bourbons, which replaced the younger line of Orléans, who was hasty of power in turn by the revolution of February 1848. A new Republic was then proclaimed.It was destroyed in 1852 by the restoration of the empire.

Twelve councils were held in Paris: the first gathered in 360, and the last there was convened in 1811 by Napoleon I without the permission of the Pope. The concordat whereby Bonaparte, first consul, reconciled with the Catholic Church France was signed in Paris in 1801, and two famous treaties have been concluded between the France and the allied powers in 1814 and 1815. Peace is signed, in 1856, after the Crimean expedition, between the Plenipotentiaries of France, of England, of the Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, the Turkey and the Russia.

This capital was greatly embellished by Napoleon III.

Title: New dictionary of ancient and modern geography and history. Publisher: Lecoffre and son (Paris) Date of publication: 1868

NB: some information have evolved since 1868.

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