Church of Notre-Dame of the assumption to Anzy le duc
The first object that attracts attention, when you approaching Anzy is the elegant Octagon tower which soars above the Priory and separates on the azure of the sky. Is not, without doubt, the Campanile in Florence, this gem that Charles v wished to contain in a gold case. The Anzy Tower, however, is admirable in its form and its proportions, and still it lacks a Spire, destroyed by fire from heaven on May 22, 1652. Today, the Octagon roof tile is almost flat.
The diameter of the tower is 5 metres 85 c. Its height above the couple is 14 meters 38 c. It consists of three floors of gemel windows, separated by columns listed under a framed arch itself in a parallelogram to which the upper is topped with an arcade.
The walls are clad in the most part, the big unit. Cornices ending the walls of the aisles are supported by modillions adorned with grimacing figures or plant products. The foothills that correspond to the pillars of the naves are quite prominent and completed by a retreat in amortization. But nothing graceful as the Crown of five small chapels grouped around the choir. The cornice of the chapel between, very prominent and flat, this, in its lower part, between the consoles which support it, the signs of the zodiac. It is almost beyond that one today enters the crypt which prevails under the choir. She contacted the Church (says Bulliot, which we often borrow here expressions), through two staircases coming to join in a single opening in the front of the choir. Of cylindrical columns supporting the ceiling of the crypt, four are breccia grey from the was crushed by an ancient column whose base can still be seen.
The façade of the Church is pierced by a hedge which the archivolt is based on columns. The portal below is decorated with four columns topped by a flower bed where the twelve apostles are carved, today maimed; an archivolt where you saw twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse, become unrecognizable by exploit modern barbarians, and a tympanum held by the figure of Christ seated on a throne and holding a book in her hand.
Enter the building
Before down the three steps by which one arrives in the area of the Church, are collecting our spirit. All invites us: the beautiful proportions of the vessel, its severe ornaments, a softly darkened clarity, and especially this harmonious set of colors and tones that fills the choir.
The total length of the Church of Anzy is 40 m 37 c in work; the width of the nave, 14 m 26 c, and the height, in Vault arches, 11 m 39 c.
A double row of five pillars, quartered of pilasters and columns engaged, covered at the base of TDP, roses, foliage, form three naves divided into five bays. A new span rises above markets of the presbyterium completed by a double apse with the smallest, to the East, relates to this graceful belt of chapels that we have admired outside.
Five windows flared, placed at each of the bays, brighten the Church. These windows are severe as the latin style, without any ornament outdoor or indoor.
the Basilica of Anzy offers mother dela representation of Christ holding the child Savior, on the upper Chiasson of the Arch of the nave bass of the North which contrebute the triumphal arch. On the upper Chiasson of the arches of the latter met the symbols of the contemplative and active life, represented by St. John the Baptist, under the figure of a man with a long beard, long hair, covered with a coat of hair, like saint Mathieu and Luke has portrayed; and by St. John the Evangelist, under the figure of a man without a beard, a long robe, bearing the old mitre with the sign of the priestly consecration on the front. At the ends of this same arc are carved two lions. On the pillar of the midi, two rivers escape, in the middle of rich foliage, two horns held by angels, and together their waters in the same basin. On the Northern, two characters argue and snapped up the beard; two monks give themselves the brotherly Kiss; a loner is in meditation; images of the life of the century, the common life and the eremitical life. The other columns are also decorated with carved capitals, sometimes offering confronted lions, oxen, eagles, attributes of the evangelists; Sometimes the leaves, alternating legends with symbolic subjects. A reverse man is devoured by the serpent, alluding to the original fall; the terraced demon strikes in vain of his trident the shield of saint Michel.
Epoque de l'église d'Anzy
Une inscription contemporaine, peinte sur bois et appendue intérieurement au-dessus de la porte de l'église d'Anzy, annonce que cette église aurait été construite en 880. Le vénérable auteur de cette inscription a recueilli les traditions locales qui, en fait de date, ne sont pas un guide toujours bien sur.
L'église d'Anzy n'a pas été construite avant l'an 1000 ; mais aussi, sa construction ne peut être reportée en deçà de la première moitié du onzième siècle.
Les termes dans lesquels le moine anonyme de Saint-Martin parle de la modestie d'Anzy et des officiuncula que Hugues y construisit après l'an 908, ne permettent guère de douter qu'on dût, dans les commencements, se contenter d'une église plus petite et plus simple que la belle basilique d'aujourd'hui. En 949, le roi Louis IV, dans la charte où il confirme l'élection de Humbert, abbé de Saint-Martin et d'Anzy, s'exprime ainsi sur ce dernier lieu : Cellula quæ dicitur Enziacus. Un tout petit monastère n'a pas encore un temple aussi vaste et aussi beau que l'église d'Anzy.
Ajoutez que Hugues et les siens partageaient la croyance commune alors que le monde allait finir l'an 1000. Or, ce n'est guère que lorsque cette appréhension fut passée que la piété, plus confiante dans la durée et l'avenir du monde visible, se mit à bâtir ces religieux monuments destinés à braver les siècles et à survivre à bien des révolutions.
Il nous paraît hors de doute que la belle église d'Anzy est le fruit des vertus, des miracles et de la renommée du bienheureux Hugues. C'est ce qui expliquerait la prédilection de la maison-mère pour Anzy, et son incomparable supériorité sur tous les autres édifices religieux dus à l'école de Saint-Martin d'Autun, tels que Thil-sur-Arroux , Bragnyen-Charollais, Chenay, etc., etc. Dieu s'étant plu à glorifier son serviteur, l'évêque diocésain ayant procédé à la translation de ses reliques, les pèlerins affluant de toute part à Anzy, on songea à y élever, sur le tombeau du saint, un monument digne de l'éclat dont Dieu l'entourait depuis quelque temps. Or, cet éclat fixé sur Anzy datait principalement de l'apparition à Evrard , en l'an 1000, de la translation des saintes reliques par l'évêque d'Autun, en l'an l001. La renommée du saint personnage était à son apogée lorsque, en 1025, on transportait solennellement ses reliques au concile d'Anse. Donc la construction de la basilique d'Anzy n'est pas antérieure à la première moitié du XIe siècle. L'église d'Anzy fut un des premiers symptômes, et demeure aujourd'hui comme un des plus authentiques témoins de cette vie que le monde reprit, de cette espérance que les saints osèrent concevoir après le terme fatal de l'an 1000 depuis l'Incarnation.
Nous ne voulons pas dire, toutefois, qu'aucune partie de cet édifice ne soit plus ancienne. Le croisillon est évidemment antérieur aux absides, aux nefs qui sont venues s'y ajouter et à la tour qui le couronne. Il est moins élevé que le reste du monument et construit avec un appareil différent. Il a eu, avant la construction des nefs, une destination particulière, puisqu'il est percé d'une porte aujourd'hui murée et de deux fenêtres murées également sur lesquelles viennent s'appuyer les murs extérieurs des nefs collatérales. Ce croisillon a pu être l'habitation seigneuriale construite avec somptuosité par Letbald et donnée par lui pour être changée in basilicam Ecclesia, en manoir ou monastère de la sainte Eglise. Quand le bienheureux Hugues se met à l'œuvre pour la fondation, nous le voyons construire les édifices réguliers oficiuncula, sans qu'il soit fait mention d'église ou de chapelle, ce qui prouve qu'elle existait.
Ecoutons maintenant le langage architectonique de l'église d'Anzy. Il est impossible de n'y pas reconnaître tous les caractères du style romano-byzantin-primaire de l'an 1000 à 1090.
Style details confirming the time of the Church of Anzy
The Church of Anzy visibly is in progress on the Latin churches with their heavy square pillars and without ornaments. Byzantine ornaments abound and have already found some perfection.
The transepts were still rare in purely Latin architecture, and when they show themselves, by chance, they are little marked. That of Anzy. on the contrary, is very pronounced.
The successive decrease in the elevation of the vaults of the three main parties, nave, choir, apses, which begins to occur quite often in this phase of Christian architecture (from 1000 to 1090), is highly-pronounced Anzy. While the vaults subside, pavers amount in the same proportion. The Earth and the heavens are close to the altar.
As early as the 11th century, said Mr. Oudin, the choir and the apse are usually parties carefully, even outdoors. Outside, the beautiful Tower of Anzy is trustworthy reporting of the choir. The apse is crowned externally by this elegant projecting cornice under which the signs of the Zodiac have been carved. This is point the least remarkable part of the monument.
« It still began at this time to fill the aisles of the choir chapels which produced a very nice effect; but this usage was particularly the work of the 12th century. » However, we have already reported around the apse of Anzy the graceful Crown of five chapels whose two extremes open on the cross and in front of the choir.
« The large romano-Byzantine churches were often high on Crypts. Most of the Crypts of the 11th century are placed under the choir. Their Vault is usually supported by cylindrical columns arranged in two or four rows. » This is all points the crypt of Anzy. Two cylindrical columns are breccia grey.
« We see point foothills themselves in Latin architecture, because the Romans were not using them for their buildings. » The foothills of Anzy, although they offer a still well low ledge, are therefore a loan made in oriental style and one of the characters of the romano-byzantine-primitive architecture, i.e. the first half of the 11th century.
« Ornaments of the 11th century include the imitation of products of plant and animal, fantastic or foreign, nature and up the zodiacs and calendars. » At SASO, these fantastic imitations full in capitals: there are flowers and plants. We have already mentioned the Zodiac of the external apse. And on one of the pillars of the small right nave are engraved the letters of the alphabet lacking any analogy with the calendar. M. Oudin again, page 430, that these ornaments belong only at this time (1000 to 1090) and in the 12th century. ''
«Until the 11th century, the capitals had been adorned with leaves quite coarsely... worked but it soon saw new designs, distinctive signs of the time. Some are trimmed with swirls and offer the Corinthian or composite form... The largest number, are found intermingled leaves grotesque heads of entwined snakes, chimeras, birds and thousand other figures. There is also the demons, characters or groups often intended to show the vices and crimes in the deformity of their appearance and their acts, or already submitted to the punishment they deserve. »All these characters, specific to the architecture of the 11th century, seem to be plotted for the capitals of the Church of Anzy.
« Arcades which put the nave in communication with the aisles are borne on pillars trimmed half protruding columns. » So it is with Anzy.
« The vaults are divided by square parties and crossing the arcades, so as to neutralize the lateral pressure in the leader on four opposite points and always related to pillars.» This is exactly the vault of the aisles of Anzy.
« The doors, at the beginning of this first period of the romano-Byzantine style, still retained great simplicity... ». But from the middle of this century (11th century), was applied particularly to adorn this part of buildings. It multiplied the columns, it lavished ornaments... Generally these are doors that are richly decorated, even in the most modest buildings. The ornamentation of the tympanum of the door was not neglected. Men and animals round-bump or Bas-relief representations are very frequent. However, Anzy facade is pierced with a hedge which the archivolt is based on columns. Those of the portal are surmounted a flower bed and an archivolt where the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse today unworthily mutilated were carved. The eardrum is occupied by the figure of Christ seated on a throne and holding a book in her hand. This portal is great device as well as the major part of the Church. Windows, a flared and medium size in the Interior of the monument, are extremely simple.
«At the beginning of the 11th century, the towers were still, as in the 9th and 10th, square and crushed, low above the roof and very simple; but they arose in the course of this century. Very often, in the 11th century and in the following, more the Bell Tower was placed at the centre of the Church, at the junction of the nave, the transept and the choir. »The Bell Tower of the Church of Anzy is Octagon, to three floors, situated in the centre of the Latin cross. Its Ridge originally was to be an obelisk square. The very high Spire, which was consumed by fire from the sky, on May 22, 1657, replaced him later. The octagons arrows were known in the 12th century.
«In the 11th as in the 12th century, overlaid often the walls of the churches of paintings, particularly the apses.» The three apses of Anzy are covered with paintings that we will devote a special section, and that cannot, in the judgment of Mr. G. Bulliot, assign to a time earlier than the 12th century.
All these architectural characters that it is unnecessary, it would be tedious to multiply more come wonderfully fortify the historical evidence, we gave at the previous n, that of Anzy Church was built in the first half of the 11th century, and very-probably from the year 1000 to 1024. It is perhaps one of the most complete monuments that remain of this architectural phase reported under the name of style romano-Byzantine-primary.
Source: Blessed Hugh of Poitiers: the Priory, the Church and the paintings by François Cucherat
Crédit photo : pierre bastien (Church of Notre-Dame of the assumption, anzy le duc)
Church of Notre-Dame of the assumption, The first object that attracts attention, when you approaching Anzy is the elegant Octagon tower which soars above the Priory and separates on the azure of the sky. Is not, without doubt, the Campanile in Florence, this gem that Charles v wished to contain in a gold case. The Anzy Tower, however, is admirable in its form and its proportions, and still it lacks a Spire, destroyed by fire from heaven on May 22, 1652. Today, the Octagon roof tile is almost flat. anzy le duc, saone et loire
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