Seine maritime

History

Before the Roman invasion, currently occupied by the Department of Seine-Inférieure, the territory was inhabited by the Velocaces, with Rothomagus, today Rouen, the capital, and speak rolled, which Julia Bona, become Lillebonne, formed the main town.

After the conquest, these peoples were included in the second Lyonnaise. At the beginning of the 5th century, they revolted against Roman rule, and formed in the Republic up to the time when the region was conquered by Clovis. Throughout this period the middle age was troubled and bloodied by the Frankish Kings family quarrels.

In the 9th century, the Norman pirates nominal the Seine and overran Rouen. Charles the Simple, unable to push back, changed the name of Neustria which was the province of Normandy, and built it to a Duchy in favour of Rollo, the leader of the Normans.

Among his successors, there is Richard II, who was forced to suppress the revolts of peasants, Robert le Diable, and his bastard, Guillaume the Conqueror, who in 1066, defeated the Anglo-Saxons in the battle of Hastings, in which Harold succumbed heroically.

The death of Guillaume, one of his sons, Robert short Plunzhera, inherited Normandy. All this time still felt infighting dissensions; It was Philippe Auguste, who, in 1204, confiscated the Duchy of Normandy on John Lackland, and brings together it the Crown.

Philippe de Valois formed Normandy in Duchy apanager in favour of his eldest son. During the hundred years war, this province was again invaded by the English, and it was issued at the time when Louis XI the definitely brings to the royal domain.

The wars of religion were disastrous for Normandy, which also became the theatre of the League, and Arques that Henri IV won a famous victory over the Duke of Mayenne, in 1589.

In 1790, the Department of Seine-Inférieure was formed the Roumois, the country of Caux and Bray, and the Norman Vexin.

Geography

The Department is located on the western edge of the Paris Basin, through his contact with the handle. It consists of three different regions: the pays de Caux, the Valley of the Seine and the pays de Bray:-most of the Department consists of the pays de Caux, vast plateau of upper Cretaceous which the average altitude exceeding 200 meters. covered uniformly flint clay and fertile silt, it combines intensive cultivation and cattle breeding; the pays de Caux ends on the sea by high chalk cliffs notched by "gaps" (estuaries of the rivers), or the "valleys" (hanging dry valleys).

The Seine place meanders cashed in a wide Valley to poor soils covered with forests; the estuary forms a deep Bay where the river waters mingle with the waters of the sea and the tide is felt up to Rouen, creating a tidal wave, tidal bore, which dates back the estuary, vital artery of the Department, the Seine has an intense inland and allowed the development of the two major ports, Le Havre and Rouen.

The buttonhole of the pays de Bray provides a perfect example of inverted relief: erosion ruled high anticlines bulges, updating the underlying soft rocks (limestones, clays); wooded depression, the pays de Bray is delimited by the chalky cliffs of the pays de Caux. The climate, oceanic order, knows little rigorous winters, cool summers and significant rainfall. the Western winds dominate. The Department has a strong industrial tradition in relation to the important port traffic. Rouen, Le Havre and Elbeuf are the three main centres around which have settled very diversified industries (metallurgy, textile chemistry, refineries, shipbuilding).

Agriculture remains active: livestock and polyculture are the two main resources.

Arts

Rich land of culture, the Department has a monumental heritage of any first-order. Megalithic civilization is only weakly represented (menhir Icecrown Petit Pierre-State) and the Roman era has left only one monument important (theatre of Lillebonne, the largest Roman theatre in the North of the France). On the other hand, the Antiquities of Rouen Museum houses very rich Gallo-Roman collections (mosaic of Lillebonne, the largest signed mosaic found in France) and a few coins from the time of the Vikings.

Romanesque architecture is developed very early; Jumièges Abbey is one of the most representative monuments of an art which relate the churches of St-Martin-de-Boscherville, Montivilliers or Etretat, le Prieuré de Graville du Havre and the small church of Manéglise or that of Varengeville, adorned with stained glass windows by Braque and surrounded by a small cemetery where he is buried. The Gothic dominates in some major buildings in Normandy: Abbey of St-Wandrille, Trinity of Fécamp, Cathedral of Rouen (patiently restored after World War II), churches of St Maclou and St-Ouen of Rouen.

The art of the Renaissance occurred through the Abbey of Valmont, that of the 17th century through the chapels of the Jesuits of Eu or Rouen. The castles and mansions, often open to the public, abound in the Department. The Dukes of Normandy or their great vassals have built castles which some have survived in more or less good state of conservation: Dungeon of Lillebonne, tour Jeanne d'Arc in Rouen, Château de Robert le Diable, castles of Arques, Dieppe or Tancarville. Later, the castles of Bailleul, Clères, Miromesnil and Mesnières-en-Bray testify to the refined art of the Lords of the Renaissance.

The castles of Bois-HÉROULT and channels are impregnated with the elegance of the 18th century. Modest mansions embellish the countryside, such as the Manor Pierre Corneille in the Petit-Couronne, or the Manor of Ango, with its picturesque brick Dovecote. Rural habitat is of great interest with its half-timbered houses or buildings of brick. Finally, contemporary art has produced ambitious achievements (the Tancarville bridge, the pont de Brotonne) and convincing (circular Church of Yvetot).

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