Seine saint denis

Name of the Department
Seine-Saint-Denis

Name of the Area
Ile-de-France

Surface
2.358 km2.

Culminating point
-

Prefecture
Bobigny. 2 districts. 40 cantons. 40 communes.

Population
1.981.197 inhabitants (census 1990).

History

If one leaves of dimension some prehistoric vestiges, one can say that it is Gallo-Roman time which date the settlement affirms of this territory: does names of places of origin Latin, presence of the Roman way Paris-Rouen, then, undoubtedly dependent have this transportation route, birth of the abbey of Saint-Denis, high-place of prayer and thought, necropolis of the kings during ten centuries.? During all Middle Ages, the area was ground of agriculture: the cereals of the plain of France or Parisis, the wine of the slopes well expose, the breeding in close played a key role in the food of Paris, while the drills provided to the capital fire and frame. In June, in the plain between Saint-Denis and Paris, the fair of Lendit gathered with the profit of the Parisian purchasers of the merchants from all Europe, and the success of the demonstration supported the urban development directly, rich person of 10.000 inhabitants, quantifies important for the time. One sold the agricultural produce to with it and one manufactured cloth there.? The Hundred Year old War, which saw Jeanne d' Arc has Aubervilliers and has Saint-Ouen, carried a large blow has this economic prosperity, compromised again then by the wars of religion (battles of Saint-Denis between catholics and Protestants in 1567), then the Sling. The importance and the stability of the exchanges reappeared fully only at the beginning of the 18th century. The Revolution appeared in the sometimes spectacular area of way: of return of Varennes, the royal family was hooted between Bondy and Pantin, the town of Saint-Denis becomes Franciade and, in the abbey one, the tombs of the kings were viols and their remainders tear off with the monument which was their guard. But already had the volunteers of the area left to fight have Valmy, have Jemmapes, and during the fall of the Empire, the inhabitants however unfavorable to the conscription, lutterent against the enemy invasion on the hills of Montreuil or Romainville.? It is middle of the 19th century, with the creation of and the development railroads of shipping, that industry took its rise, supporting the demographic development. The villages closest to Paris experienced an considerable increase of population and an already anarchistic development; Did Saint-Denis reach 40.000 inhabitants.? The war of 1870 surprised this peaceful area and under development full. Bondy was very seriously damages, Drancy almost entirely destroyed following incoherent combat. The plate of Avron resisted one month the enemy and the church of Le Bourget was the theatre of one of the most famous combat. In Sevran, the Prussians camperent in the church, or they installerent a store has vivres on the furnace bridge. After this crushing argument, the expansion included and developed in the urban disorder and the social indifference. Paul Eluard was born has Saint-Denis in 1895. The First World War, which saw the taxis of the Marne gathering has Gagny, not only did not stop the growth, but amplified it, while attracting on the spot, for the needs for the industry of war, a provincial hand-d'?uvre which will be maintained there partly. The shortly after the hostilities, poor allotments, born from a crisis of housing which supported the land speculation and support by the law Loucheur, still came to disfigure this landscape or came to land Lindbergh in 1927, this without offering satisfactory living conditions to the evil parcelled out, and while the factory construction continued. The economic crisis of 1931 slows down this anarchistic development, to which one started has to think has to bring a little order. The Second world war was, here, often tragedy, with two places of pain, Romainville and Drancy. In 1944, a bombardment shaved the town of Noisy-the-Dryness partly. And then the area set out again, at the rate/rhythm of the country, and was covered with more beautiful, either with small houses, but with often monotonous buildings, schools, colleges, sports equipment. One endeavoured to put a little order in chaos, in particular by the destruction of the decayed districts, and to satisfy at the same time the needs increased for individual or collective circulation. The Department of the Seine-Saint-Denis, creates in 1964, with chief town has Bobigny, is since endeavours to release the specificity of the new district and to lead its rational development. But certain inhabitants of Villemomble, Gagny, of Raincy, like their fathers and their grandfather, are always followers of the noble play of arc, school of address and courtesy.

Geography and nature

This department would have merit, him also, to be called Seine-et-Marne, since it extends between these two rivers. In the west, the end of the largest meander of the river forms limit, leaving at the Seine-Saint-Denis an island in the shape of crescent, the Island-Saint-Denis, who forms has it only a commune. To south-east, the Marne crosses the southern end of the territory. Between the two, does an artificial river, the channel of Ourcq, divide the department into two about equal parts.? All the northern part of the district is taillee in the plain of France, wide punt of fertile silts little by little covered initially by industry, then by the buildings. In the south of the channel of Ourcq a country of plates limestones, marly or sandy starts, with some hills and the remains of old large the drills. This a long time agricultural area was this all times crossing point. The first roads on the basis of Paris towards North and the East have guard in their classification (N1, 2 and 3) the memory of their seniority. More recently came to be added motorways to it: does that of the East (A4) cross the southern end of the department, but this one is especially concerns with A1, which crosses Saint-Denis and A3, which on the basis of the exchanger of Bagnolet, joined the preceding one to serve the airport of Roissy, because the department was right from the start (Le Bourget) an air platform.? It is perhaps the French department or it is most difficult to speak about nature, because this piece of Ile-de-France without very clear geographical characteristics, a long time dedicates to the cultures, in a hundred and twenty years became an immense town of twenty thousand hectares, peuplee of more than one million inhabitants, or the communes met about everywhere and soudees. Same the edges of the Seine are entirely industrialize or urbanize, and those of the Marne are on the way to know the same fate.? But nature, in this department, for a few years has been reconquered and recreee by the man, the tree, well late, being become again sacring. What remains the famous one and gigantic drill of Bondy, has Clichy-sous-Bois and Montfermeil, is safe and refits, a park was creates in Courneuve, others are based on grounds release from the industrial waste lands or on the slopes of Romainville, and the House of education of the Legion of honor has agrees to divide to it his with the inhabitants of Saint-Denis.

Arts

The chances of the history have group here certain major monuments of our architecture and others more secondary, but characteristic. A vault of the church of Noisy-the-Large is not other than the apse of the primitive sanctuary: it goes back to the 10th century. But the essential monument, for the Middle Ages, is the abbey one of Saint-Denis, which offers, with the parts built by Suger, the beginnings of Gothic construction and, with those going back to Saint Louis, its apogee. Saint-Denis is also an exceptional page of the history of the sculpture, decorative with the gates of the church, funerary with the capital series of the tombs of the kings, who spread out 13th at the 19th centuries. Concurrently to this large sanctuary, of the churches of countryside were to us conservees, in the savour of their rural Gothic architecture: Neuilly-sur-Marne, Montreuil, Aulnay-sous-Bois, and the monasteries of the Middle Ages are still present with the barn dimiere of Tremblay-les-Gonesse. The church of Aubervilliers, formerly place of pilgrimage, has guard the aspect which donnerent to him 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries, and Carmel of Saint-Denis has recently finds, thanks to a remarkable restoration, its aspect of the years 1620. Then comes the time from the castles: if we lost the exceptional building which was Raincy, as well as the first castle of Saint-Ouen, remain to us Clichy-sous-Bois and Gournay for 17th, the gate of the Mound of Stains for the whimsical time Regence, the castles of Epinay, Villemomble, Gagny, of Vaujours for 18th, time which saw also building, under the direction of Robert de Cotte, one of the most beautiful abbeys of time, today. occupied by the Legion of honor Saint-Denis has. And the neo-classicism of the time Louis XVI continues with the orangery of Clichy-sous-Bois and the stables of Stains, to be prolonged with the castle of Saint-Ouen, from which our time knew to restore charming it Restauration decoration. The 20th century opens in the area by the chief-d'?uvre of Auguste Perret, the church of Raincy, Sainte Vault of the reinforced concrete and is continued by the searchs for Emile Aillaud has Pantin (Courtillieres), by the severe one? structure of the Prefecture of Bobigny, ?uvre of Folliasson, or by the situee part on the commune of Noisy of the new city of Marne-the-Valley.

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