Somme

Name of the Department
Summon

Name of the Area
Picardy

Surface
6.175 km2.

Culminating point
210 m in Vimeu.

Prefecture
Amiens: 4 districts. 44 cantons. 783 communes.

Population
547.825 inhabitants (census 1990).

History

Was the department creates in 1790 by the regrouping of country pertaining to? Picardy (Vermandois, Santerre, Amienois, Vimeu, Ponthieu, Marquenterre) and in Artois. ? Do these territories, live paleolithic time, were, at the time of the conquest of? Gaules, people by Ambiani which, combine in Bellovaques, resisterent has Jules Cesar. ? Was the area incorporated in Gaulle Belgium and its capital Samarobriva (Amiens) became? then a city thrives. ? Was Evangelisee in 301 by St Firmin, it ravagee with 5th by the cruel invasions? (Alains, Sueves, Vandals, Burgondes), then conquered by the Francs. With 9th, it was? divisee as counts: count d' Amiens who made return to the Crown in 1185; count of? Vermandois, one of most powerful of the north of France, which was acquired by Philippe? Auguste in 1191; count de Ponthieu, acquired by the king of England in 1272, conquered? by does Philippe VI of Valois in 1336, returned to England in 1360, yield to the duke? Burgundy in 1435, then joined together with the Crown in 1477. The One hundred year old was war one? painful period for the area (demolished of Crecy in 1346, carried out of Charles it? Bad, king de Navarre). In 1435, strong main cities of Picardy (Amiens? Were Abbeville, Corbie, Montdidier, Fibula, Roye) committed to the duke of Burgundy? then rachetees by Louis XI with died of Charles the Bold one. They were used as line of? defense in the north of Paris until the annexation of Artois in 1659. During 16th, them? English invaded several times Picardy. Do the wars of religion causerent of? serious damage has Amiens, Abbeville and Peronne, or the League was proclamee in 1577. ? The Spaniards invaded Amiens in 1597, Corbie in 1636. Does the department, occupy? by the Prussians in 1870-71, on July 22, 1871 was evacuated; it had still much has? to suffer from war 1914/18, in particular during the battle of the Sum, and of? the allied offensive of July 1916, like, of a violent battle in June 1940.

Geography

Does the department belong to the secondary aureole of the Paris basin, vast depression? sedimentary or the various layers encase the ones in the others. Its relief? do plates of cretaceous formation, slightly undulate, is cutting by the valleys? alluvial of the rivers cabins in the synclinal ones, and by valleys cigs, them? small dry valleys. Several geographical areas are distinguished: - in the east, Vermandois and it? Santerre, fertile plates covered with silts and clay-with-flints coming from? decomposition of limestone. In Santerre point tertiary scraps; - with? centers, Amienois or the chalk levels sometimes, creating agricultural conditions less? favorable; - in the west, Ponthieu and Vimeu, with the relief more show. ? Does the department east border in the west by the littoral of the English Channel which presents two? different aspects: in the south, towards the mouth of Bresle, a sharp cliff announcing it? country of Caux; in north, the dimension results from the accumulation of marine alluvia. ? estuaries envases move back by the progression of the offshore bars or sand banks; thus? a quaternary marshy country, Marquenterre is form, left polder protects? by a cord of rollers and dunes. The climate is of order oceanic; winds of west? dominant a strong rainfall and rather constant temperatures involve; in the east? are the continental influences more sensitive, the more rigorous winters, the summers more? heats. Is agriculture very developpee and the department was one of the first has? to adopt the methods of industrial agriculture. Are the plates use for? field crop (oleaginous cereals, beets, plants fourrageres and). In? low areas of Marquenterre the breeding dominates. Finally the cultures maraicheres and? vegetables of full field thrive in the valley of the Sum and the area of Amiens. ? Does the Sum have a very old industrial tradition (textile, metallurgy, chemistry? food industry).

Arts

The study by Stopping of Perthes of the paleolithic layers of Abbeville and of? St-Acheul can be consideree like the birth of prehistory. The time? Gallo-Roman does not have, as for it, leaves that few vestiges. Destruction of the abbey? of does St-Riquier, model of Carolingian architecture, have deprives the area of sound alone? testimony of the Early middle ages. Didn't the Romanesque art know a great radiation? (Lucheux, Monchy-Lagache, Airaines and the Berteaucourt-the-Ladies, most invaluable? Romance testimony in Picardy). Notre-Dame d' Airaines and St-Martin of Namps-with-Valley? are, into the department, the first churches or was introduced the ribbed vault? architectural process of which the early use explains the obliteration of the Romanesque art. Art? Gothic, which knew full sound blooming with 13th, is very richly? symbolizes by Notre-Dame of Amiens, one of the chiefs-d'?uvre of the Gothic in France, which? preserve the essence of its rich person decoration has carves. Does the blazing Gothic constitute? better expression of the religious art in Picardy (abbey of St-Riquier, St-Wulfran? of Abbeville, vault of the St-Spirit has Rue). Did the Rebirth continue especially in? furniture of church. Does the conventual buildings of Valloires have Argoules constitute more? beautiful manifestation of the classic art. Isn't the civil architecture also richly? dotee that religious architecture. However, the province having been for a long time? an area border, saw the proliferation of the fortresses: strong castles of Fibula? Picquigny, Boves, Lucheux, Bernatre or Folleville, fortifications of Street? St-Valery-on-nap and Lucheux, keep of Abbeville. Is Rambures the model more? complete of castle of 15th. With 16th, the manors replace the strong castles: ? Are Beaucamps-the-young person, Laboissiere-in-Santerre, Avesnes-Chaussoy? gentilhommieres or the concern of comfort dominates. Defensive needs? disappearing, one sees multiplying the stone and brick castles, essential component? architecture in Picardy: castles 17th (Suzanne, Frucourt, Huppy? Vauchelles-les-Domart) or 18th (St-Gratien, Esserteaux, Wailly? Dompierre-on-Authie, Length, Bagatelle has Abbeville). Isn't the use of these materials? not an exclusiveness in 18th: thus Bertangles and Davesnecourt, built out of stone. ? One also notes some belfries (Street, St-Riquier, Amiens, Doullens, Lucheux? Fibula), of the windmills (St-Maxent) or has water (Fremontiers). In spite of? destruction, Amiens and Abbeville have preserve of picturesque old districts.

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