Val de marne

Name of the Department
The Valley-of-Marne

Name of the Area
Ile-de-France

Surface
244 km2

Culminating point
126 m with the plate of Villejuif

Prefecture
Creteil. 3 districts. 39 cantons. 47 communes.

Population
1.215.538 inhabitants (census 1990).

History

The Valley-of-Marne has, has Villejuif, the place perhaps lives oldest of the Paris region: one has there finds flints chelleens and shards of ceramics has ribboned reasons and it is not impossible only Paris, before it was Paris, has occupies this site. Megaliths (menhirs of Villeneuve-the-King and Saint-Maur) also testify to a human presence in the area has one time reculee very. The Gallo-Roman period is there still marquee by a building, the vestiges of the aqueduct of Arcueil. King Dagobert, crossing the drill, sponsored the foundation of Villeneuve-the-King, but it has Vincennes which will be written many pages of the French history, especially of Saint Louis has Louis XIV. In Saint-Maur, one notes in 1418 the signature of a transitory peace between Armagnacs and Anglo- Bourguignons, then they are the continuations of the edit.de Nantes: the worship protesting east authorizes initially has Ablon, then has Charenton. The Sling has brings confusions and mournings, in particular has Villeneuve-Saint-Georges. The 18th century is calmer, and the area of Choisy-the-King benefits from the stays of Louis XV with the castle. Before or after him, the large ones of the kingdom constituerent on our territory a great number of residences, whose especially the memory remains: princes, as the count de Clermont has Berny (Fr esnes) and Miss de Sens has Vilgenis (Massy); large lords, the such marshal of Saxony to Piple (Boissy-Saint-Light); ministers: Foucquet has Saint-Mande, Chauvelin has Grosbois, Silhouette has Bry; members of Parliament: president Pelletier has Villeneuve-the-King, Lambert of Thorigny has Sucy, Malon has Bercy, of Ormesson in the ground which they had baptisee; the financial ones as Paris-Duverney has Nogent. Only one projecting event marks, under the last three reigns, the history of the area: the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), which involved the demolition of the temple of Charenton. Is the area primarily agricultural, wine also, and industry with the cradle appears there only by the ceramics manufacture of Choisy-the-King.? With the Revolution, the parishes, of which much does not have changes limits into becoming common, redigerent their registers of grievances, which express a great political maturity in general and express only moderate requests: that of Bonneuil is remarkable. The climate is weighed down soon, but few localities knew bloody terror and the case of the lord of Perreux, guillotine in 1794, is exceptional. At the 19th century, the creation of the railroad (Paris-Juvisy by Vitry and-Choisy, 1849) supported the industrial growth, which began again of more beautiful after the combat of 1870 (Bry, Champigny), sometimes generator of social disturbances (riots of Villeneuve-saint-Georges, 1908). This with the detriment of the cultures: the vine of the edges of the Seine or the Marne, the cereals and beets of the plate of Brie, the mushroom beds of Champigny and Houses-Alfort reculerent little by little towards south-east and about completely disappeared today. The movement of urbanization was accentuated between the two wars, accompanies, has Cachan and has Villejuif, of some shy persons attempts at installation. After the Second world war, marquee by painful scenes has Fresnes, this movement began again of more beautiful, supports by a demographic explosion which doubled the population of the area. Construction was accompanied by restoration, sometimes brutal: Arcueil, Gentilly and other communes thus lost their old picturesque village center, which testified to their master key. At the same time, of new equipment were realized, of which three more important are undoubtedly the Market of Rungis, finally come to replace the Markets, the extension and the installation of the airport of Orly, which modified the landscape of a whole sector, and the construction of a6 motorway. The Department of the Valley-of-Marne, creates in 1964, equips with new capacities in 1981, endeavours to harmonize these various components.

Geography and nature

The principal characteristic is the presence of two great water ways, the Seine and Marne, which run idly to meet has Charenton (Conflans, confluence). Their slope is so weak that the least obstacle diverts them, the such hillock of Joinville (53 m), which causes the loop of the Marne. The Seine receives Yerres, grown bigger Midnight supper, and the Marne Morbras, but the Beaver, which ran south in north in the western part of the department, is now entirely covered. The Valley-of-Marne can be divided into vertical geographical areas: alluvia and sands in the valley of the Beaver, meulieres and clay (brickyards of Fresnes and Chevilly) on the plate of Villejuif, alluvia and sands in the basins of the Seine and the Marne, limestones and wood in the part is. Limestone has causes many careers (Champigny), the gravel and sand tablecloths are exploitees without stopping since the 19th century and the alluvial zones were a long time the providence of the market-gardeners. If this last culture has today much decreases, the department is still the kingdom of the horticulturists: does house plants have Ivry, lilac has Vitry, pinks has Mandres, orchises has Boissy-Saint-Light.? The railway service road of the department is developpee deform spectacular these last years. Twenty years ago, it was reduced, apart from the broad outlines, with the decayed line of the Bastille, has shy persons ends of underground lines serving Vincennes, Charenton and Ivry, and has a part, very marginal, line of Seals, interesting Gentilly, Arcueil and Cachan. The transformation of the first on line has R.E.R. has considerably develops its equipment and its traffic, while the construction of one second branch made it possible to serve the communes of the valley of the Marne. In. same time, S.N.C.F., refitting and modernizing old installations, created the line C of the R.E.R., which allowed the inhabitants of Juvisy and Choisy to go directly to the center of Paris and beyond, and improved at the same time the service road of the airport of Orly. In addition, work of prolongation of underground lines was actively growths: was line 8 menee has Houses-Alfort and has Creteil, line 7 in the Kremlin-Bicetre and soon has Villejuif.? It is difficult to almost entirely speak about nature in a department urbanizes. However, it is still present by its two rivers, whose banks were often wasted by industry, but which remain elsewhere sometimes places of relaxation: the guinguettes of the turn of the Marne do not have all not disappeared and the terrace of Chennevieres always offers an extended panorama, although very urbanizes. And the edges of Morbras or the Midnight supper still often have charm. One also finds nature in the wood of the part Is: The Barn, Notre-Dame, that the community endeavours to tear off with the urbanization and confusion. This same nature is found, disciplinee, humanisee, in the public parks, which they are historical (parks of Grosbois, of Rancy Bonneuil has) or of recent creation (Choisy-the-King). And the rosery of Hay offers nature in its form more sophistiquee, but how much tempting.

Arts

In spite of the destruction, the department keeps a certain number of major monuments of architecture: medieval churches of Creteil, of Nogent and especially of Vitry, cathedral 17th of Choisy; castles of Vincennes, exceptional example of medieval military architecture, Ormesson, Grosbois, Orly, Marmousets to the Tail-in-Brie. The stupidity of the men made disappear at the century last Choisy-the-King of which remain only the houses of entry, Bercy of which we have guard the commun runs and, has one recent time, Conflans, while the beautiful castle of Sucy-in-Brie was irremediably disfigures. The modern architecture is manifestee interval wars by interesting achievements: Arrighi power station of Vitry (1932), school complex Karl Marx de Villejuif, by A. Lurcat. Since, one can note the church Saint-Paul-of-the-Valley in Hay, the prefecture and the house of the culture of Creteil, the round school of Maroilles cheese and the air terminals of Orly.? It is also a country of painters: Watteau liked the edges of the Marne has Nogent, or he died, Oudry has draws in the park of Arcueil, Delacroix is does not have Saint-Maurice and the edges of the Marne have inspires Pissarro, Cezanne, Dunoyer de Segonzac and many painters of today.

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