Vaucluse

Name of the Department
Vaucluse

Name of the Area
Provence-Alp-Dimension-in Azur

Surface
3.743 km2.

Culminating point
the mount Ventoux (1 912 m).

Prefecture
Avignon; 3 districts, 24 cantons, 151 communes.

Population
427.343 inhabitants (census of 1982). 467.075 inhabitants (census? from 1990).

History

Placee in the North-East of the confluence of the Durance and the Rhone, almost with the outlet of? was Rhone-native corridor, on the passage of Italy towards Spain, the area from time immemorial one? crucible of civilizations, the ear-paleolithic period of the shelters (approximately 10.000 front? our era) until the end of 18th. What surprises in the master key of this territory, it is? the absence of true metropolis which explains and reinforces the juxtaposition of entities? ethnic or political: tribes celto-Ligurians of Cavares, Menlini, Tricastins, Voconces? Vordenses, Vulgientes and Dexsiviates colonisees by Cesar, which establishes veterans has? Avignon, Orange, Apt and Carpentras. Vespasien (69-79) made draw up the Orange land register? in did a campaign crossed by the way of Clutch, of Arles has Lyon, while the way? of Domitien moves towards Milan by Cavaillon, the Julien bridge and Apt. After the invasions? of are Alamans and Vandals, Avignon the burgonde assiegee by Clovis (500)? disputee between Ostrogoths and the kings merovingiens, those of Austrasie. Charles Martel? in hunting Arabs. Large abbeys external with the country extend their field: ? Benedictines of Villeneuve-the-Avignon de Montmajour and Saint-Victor of Marseilles? Clunisiens de Pont-Saint-Esprit in the dioceses of Avignon, Cavaillon, Carpentras? Orange, Vaison, Apt and neighbors. Component of the successive kingdoms of Provence, of? Burgundy, then is Empire, the country the object of competitions between the counts of Toulouse? and of Barcelona until the division of 1125, which leaves undivided Avignon the Beams, princes? of Orange, of Agoult, counts de Sault, Reillane, Venasque, Mevouillon, them? Mondragon, Sabran, Giraud Amic, Simiane, Remond of Modena and Astouaud? their seigniories and rights between their heirs divide almost ad infinitum. Repression? Albigensian heresy, embrassee by the house of Saint-Gilles-Toulouse, Louis? VIII (1226) and do the matrimonial policy of Capetiens reveal the two brothers of Saint? Louis, Charles of Anjou, future king de Sicile, and Alfonse of Poitiers: they abolish? do consular republic of Avignon and share the area, one as count of? Provence, the other as count de Toulouse or marquis de Provence; it is Comtat? Venaissin. In 1274, does papacy definitively assume the administration of Comtat with? Does Pernes like sit of the vice-chancellor and reinforces his capacity with the arrival of Clement V, in? 1309, then the erection of Carpentras in capital (1320). Jean XXII and his successors? the septentrional borders of the State move back by receiving the Hospital ones of Saint? Do Jean of Jerusalem the goods confiscate Temple and by carrying out purchases near? dolphin of Viennese. Same if Avignon is achetee (1348) with the Jeanne queen of Naples? can't countess of Provence, the administrative capital of papacy supplant? Rome in its religious primacy. Large legates of 15th S., Ia vice-legateship? from does Avignon keep a capacity of jurisdiction in non-contentious matters (exemptions and benefit) which extends? all South-east has. Does the creation of the ecclesiastical province of the comtat make of Julien Beyond? Rovere. future Jules II. the first archbishop of Avignon (1475), Italian preponderance? illustrated by the families Pazzi, Baroncelli, Ricci, Peruzzi, Doni, Fortia. The death of the king? Rene allows the meeting of the count de Provence (1483) the Crown: country of Sault? of Apt, Sluice and the Acute ones. Does the king treat Inhabitant of Avignon and Comtadins besides in? regnicoles, intervenes at the time of the wars against the Empire or of Religion (Of Vaud? 1545), does these states make occupy in the event of conflict with the pope under Louis XIV and Louis XV? or confiscates in Nassau Protestants the Orange principality, imposes? suppression of the industry of the painted fabrics and the culture of the tobacco (legal settlement of? 1734). With does the Revolution, the population inhabitant of Avignon adopt ideas and measures? Parisian, enters in conflict with Carpentras and high Comtat (massacre of? Refrigerator). After meeting in France of Avignon and Comtat (1791), the department of? Vaucluse east creates (June 25, 1793) to break the federalism. Resistance to the coup d'etat? of is Louis-Napoleon (December 2, 1851) strong, and of sharp electoral fights take place? throughout IIIeme Republic, or the parties radical (Edouard Daladier) and? Socialist mark the political life. There is a little more than forty years, finally? did configuration of the country support the early appearance of the maquis (Sault, Apt, Luberon)? of resistance to the occupation.

Geography

Does Beaumes-of-Venice offer traces of the enormous accumulation of gypsum of the time of? sorted, while that of Mazan is located at the dawn of Oligocene and provides more? important plaster reserve of Europe. Is the cretaceous at the origin of limes of Robion? (massive limestones of the mounts of Vaucluse), but also of white sands of Bedoin and? fireclays of Bollene. Stone quarries of size (stone of the South) of? are the time burdigalienne, numerous on both sides of the torrent of Cavalon, enters? Luberon and plate of Vaucluse, but does one also exploit some in the south of Ventoux and in? area of Vaison. Gravels of the terraces of the Rhone and the Durance, at the dawn of? pleistocene, provide aggregates. The instability of the climate, with its precipitations? stormy, the violence of the mistral, aridity of the summer, autumnal risings of the Rhone and? don't dryness of the winter have prevents the farmers from extracting the maximum of the ground? thanks to the water, that of Sorgue born of the fountain of Vaucluse, but also of the channels? medieval of Saint-Julien and the Hospital, the Crillon channel, Carpentras, Sluice? Cadenet, of Pierrelatte. After the times of culture of the garance, paper mills and? textiles (18th and 19th S.), economy, supported by a strong growth? demographic due to immigration, rests on the culture of the fruits (first? producing department of apples, cherries and table grapes; 2nd producer of? pears and strawberries) and of the vegetables (1st producer of preserve tomatos and melons? 2nd producer for asparaguses, garlics, zucchinis and onions). Do the wines represent? approximately 5% of the turnover of the French vineyard.

Arts

Do the Romans of Provincia have leaves important vestiges of their taste of? spectacles and of the triumphs, but also of the communications: Orange, Vaison? Carpentras, Cavaillon, Julien bridges and of Vaison. Does the quantity of small eveches have? the construction of Romance cathedrals causes (sometimes on foundations? former, like Vaison), sometimes increased at the Gothic period, in sound? southernmost adaptation caracterisee by simplicity. Did the insecurity bring the popes has? to build does a palate-fortress and have to order the repairing of the ramparts of the cities and? villages, but they attirerent, imitate by the cardinals, of many artists. In addition to? medieval ruins of the valley of the Rhone (Mondragon, Mornas, Uchaux, Lhers? Is Chateauneuf-of-pope), it transitional period of 15th-16th that remain? more good examples of castles: Does Saumane, Gordes (decorate by ?uvres with? Vasarely), Lourmarin, Ansouis, while Turn-in Aigues does offer the exceptional case of? the introduction of the style of the Rebirth. Churches of the traditional time? distinguish by the richness from their organ cases as by elegance from the cages in? iron of the bell-towers. Are the synagogues of Carpentras and Cavaillon to us? arrived in the state refines art of 18th. Dynasties of artists, among? which it is frequent to meet architects and painters, sometimes sculptors? we have leaves important testimonys of their skill: Mignard, Royers of? Valfeniere, Franque, Parrocel, Peru, Vernet. More close to us, maintained? reputation of a friendly country of arts of the painters like Paul Vayson, Laurens, Grivolas? Manguin, Seyssaud.?? Michel HAYEZ? Director of the services of files? of Vaucluse

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