Inhabited by the Gallic tribes of the Leuques and the Rauraques, during the conquest of Gaul by the Romans, the territory of the present Department was incorporated into the Belgium Gaule. Until the end of the Empire, it suffered barbarian invasions (Alans, vandals, Suebi, Huns). Conquered by the Franks, it then became part of Austrasia, Merovingian of the East Kingdom. In 843, Lothair was awarded by the Treaty of Verdun. Subsequently, the Kingdom of Lothair, or Lorraine, undergoes multiple shares and high Lorraine was given in 1048 Gepard d'Alsace, native of Châtenois. It was the first hereditary Duke of Lorraine and the founder of the dynasty, who ruled the Duchy until 1736, and the empire of Austria until 1918. In the middle ages, the rivalry of the Dukes of Lorraine and the counties of vaudémont, invasion of the big companies, then the expansionist designs of Charles the bold caused serious devastation in the region. 1633 In 1660, it was invaded and occupied by the French troops (in retaliation against the intrigues of Charles IV) and the Swedish troops (during the thirty years war). In 1736, the Lorraine was given to life title Stanislas Leczinski, father-in-law of Louis XV, deposed King of Poland. At his death, in 1766, it was attached to the France. The Department was formed in 1790 by the meeting part of Lorraine, plots of champagne and Franche-Comté. Therefore, this Department of the France Eastern markets contributed actively to the wars of the Revolution and of the Empire and had to suffer severely the war of 1870/71 and the two world wars of 1914/18 and 1939/45.


The Department presents itself as a secondary training tray against a primary massif des Vosges. There are several different geographical areas. Hercynian massif characterized by low altitudes and mountain passes impassable and rare in winter (the vosges were switched to the North at the time of the Alpine uplift). The Quaternary glaciations have done a work of erosion that produces the peneplains. If the Alsatian side suddenly falls on the plain of the Rhine, the Lorraine side instead descends gently sloping westward. Line of the summits of the Donon in the ballon d'Alsace, passing by the Hohneck, ensures the border with Alsatian departments.

The arts

Celtic civilisation left important evidence in the region of relanges (remains of the camp of bonneval, the Escles Gallic station), in Raon-l'étape and Saint-Dié (sites call Pierre and the Bure). The Museum of epinal and that of Saint-Dié retain many Gallo-Roman remains. There will be great, near the largest amphitheatre of the Gauls, a remarkable example of Gallo-Roman city, and to Plombières the remains of the Roman baths. Romanesque art has experienced a great development with characteristics in Lorraine of the South found in several churches: Crypts of remiremont, bleurville and esley; lignéville Tower; pompierre portal, head-take the novel in Lorraine. The most perfect novels are bouzemont, Vomécourt-sur-Madon, field-le-Duc and Relanges, Notre-Dame de Saint-Dié and Etival. Introduced in the first third of the 13th, Gothic art flourished in St-Christophe de Neufchâteau, lamarche, Martigny-les-Bains, mirecourt and Remiremont. Begun in the 11th, reworked in the 13th and 14th, the St - Maurice of Épinal Basilica achieves a harmonious synthesis of influences that have arisen in Lorraine. The Gothic had a new golden age in the 15th and 16th (charms, Châtel-sur-Moselle, rambervillers, Grand, Gugney - aux-garlic, vittel, cloister of Saint-Dié), with the appearance of the flamboyant style. There is little Renaissance buildings, but they are full of interest (Chapel of savigny charms, chapelle St-Hubert autrey, Chapel of dommartin), Fontenoy-le-Château. 18Th century date the classical facade of the Cathedral of Saint-Dié and moyenmoutier Abbey Church, the most impressive baroque building of the Department, as well as a group of about 40 churches (Bresse, brouvelieures, Docelles, Saint-Amé) characterized by a flat ceiling nave and a purdy¹s five-sided. Finally, many rural churches are decorated with rich furnishings. The feudal ruins (Arches, Beauffremont, Châtel-sur-Moselle, Épinal), strong houses and castles (Lichecourt to Relanges, Dommartin-sur-Vraine, in frebécourt-sandaucourt, isches-Saint-Baslemont Bourlémont, Glover to Tranqueville-Graux), bear witness to the turbulent history of the Department. Other castles attest to the prosperity of the 18th (Autigny-la-Tour, thuillières, the Capuchins in Rambervillers, Abbot's Palace of Remiremont and senones, castles and princely hotels in Senones, House of the arches in Plombieres). Finally, Epinal, Active Center of popular imagery as early as the 17th century, keeps with the international Museum of imaging a outstanding collection of the woodcut evidence of folk art from around the world.

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