Park of the Manor of Scotland-button, French Heritage monument to Chevreuse
Chevreuse, chief town of canton, locate on left bank of the Yvette, with the foot of the raised slopes of 80 bills of quantities which carry the imposing ruins of the old castle; cross by the secondary road n? 8 and the ways of great communication n?13 and 58; the way of shared interest n? 46 limit the commune in the east; 32 km have. from Paris, 17 S. - S. - O. of Versailles, 19 NR. - E. of Rambouillet, 2 of the station of Saint-Remy-the-Chevreuse, and 9Km4 of that of the Canopy; 1,989 inhabitants; the telegraphic office. The hospital-old people's home! , transfers in 1858 in the buildings built at the expense of Mr. the duke of Luynes, contains 48 beds, and has an income from approximately 13,000 FR. the welfare office distributes for more than 3,000 FR. of help each year. Mutual aid association. Library of Saint Martin's day more than cash 700 volumes, and school library. Boarding school of boys directs by the teacher; boarding school of young girls held by the nuns of the Providence of Portieux. - Culture maraichere, seeds, cereals, hays, wood; stone meulieres and sandstone careers; mills has flour, a tannery, a tilery. - Walk saturdays. Fairs last Saturday of April, on July 22 (the Madeleine), on September 14 (Samt-Lubin) and on November 12 (Saint Martin's day). Celebrates of Saint Martin's day of summer second Sunday of July.
End of the tenth century there has Chevreuse (Caprosia) a small abbey under the title of Saint-Saturnin. The first dominant lords of Chevreuse were those of Montlhery. The grounds which have form the chatellenies of Chevreuse and Maurepas were held in stronghold of the bishops of Paris, the abbots of Saint-Denis and the counts de Montfort-l' Amaury. The strongholds and sub-fiefs of these chatellenies extended:
- on the parishes of Chevreuse, Holes, Choisel, Saint-Remy-the-Chevreuse, Milon-the-Vault, Saint-Lambert, Saint-Forget, Maincourt, Bush hammers, Dampierre and Senlisse;
- on the parishes of Maurepas, Coignieres, Tremblay, and partly on those of Bazoches, Mareil-le-Guyon, Saint-Remy-the Honours, Jouars-Pontchartrain, Elancourt and the Canopy.
The whole of these strongholds formed at the fifteenth century the baronnie of Chevreuse and Maurepas. There was, moreover, of the strongholds and the sub-fiefs, locate outwards and sometimes has rather large distances from this baronnie.
The elder branch of the lords lords of the manor of Chevreuse had as an author Milon I er, attaches to the court of king Robert in 1024. Under Milon III, about 1108, the castle of Chevreuse resisted the efforts of the troops of king Louis the Large one. Milon became one of the illustrations of the court of France and was sent by Louis VII has Constantinople, towards the emperor Manuel Comnene, in order to facilitate the passage of the cross army (1146). GUI III followed Philippe-Auguste to the third crusade (1189). His/her son, GUI IV, took also the cross, in 1239 and shared the captivity of the constable Amaury de Montfort. It was a rich, powerful lord and honours. He made following Louis saint the glorious countryside which ended in the battle of Taillebourg (1242). The White queen of Castille, during her second regency, charged it, with Herve, her brother, to collect the heritage of the count de Toulouse, in the name of Alphonse of Poitiers and Jeanne, his wife. GUI IV died in 1263.
With Herve, his/her son, died out the elder branch of the first lords of Chevreuse.
The branch junior had as a chief Herve de Chevreuse, lord of Maincourt and brother of GUI IV. The son of Herve, Anseau, names in 1272 marshal of the kingdom of Sicily, in reward of the services which it had rendered has Charles of Anjou, acquired, under the terms of the withdrawal lignager, the chatellenies of Chevreuse and Maurepas (1297). On many occasion it announced to the service of king Philippe the Beautiful one, and it was names large hone of France. In spite of its old advances, it was responsibility of carry the streamer, honor which was never grants to the but most valiant knights of the army. He died in the battle of Mons-in-Puelle, chokes in his armour by excessive heat (1304).
Two years later, Philippe the Beautiful one placed has Chevreuse with all the Court. After death D Anseau, the chatellenies of Chevreuse and Maurepas passerent, by the marriage of Jeanne, her single heiress, in the family of Amboise, then in that of Sorts, and resterent there until 1366, time to which the ground of Chevreuse was sold to pay part of the ransom of Ingerger d' Amboise, which had been made prisoner with the disastrous battle of Poitiers.
The second family of the lords of Chevreuse had as an author Pierre de Chevreuse, foreigner with the preceding family, and had the baronnie of 1366 has 1543. Pierre de Chevreuse, one of the considerable men of his time, was load of important employment in the public purses, under the reigns of Jean If, Charles V and Charles VI, 1362 has 1393. He was fastener as officer at the house of these the last two kings and has those of the princes of royal blood. He was lord of the manor and captain of Corbeil, governor of the count de Dreux, adviser of the king and general of all finances in Languedoc.
Chevreuse fell to the capacity from the duke from Burgundy and of sound combines, the king of England. Tannegui of Chatel and Barbasan, with the head of the royal troops, took again the city in 1417, but renoncerent has to make the seat of the castle. It was only into 1438 that the city and the castle went definitively has Charles VII. The region had been so much ravagee and afflicted, that the town of Chevreuse did not count any more in 1458 but 28 parishioners, while formerly it had had 300 of it. The baronnie of Chevreuse and Maurepas was acquired in 1543 per Jean de Brosse, husband of Anne de Pisseleu, duchess of Stamps. Fran?ois Ier set up the baronnie in duchy.
Charles of Lorraine, cardinal and archbishop of Rheims, become owner of the ground of Chevreuse, obtained in 1555 the confirmation of the letters of erection accordees has Jean de Brosse. During the wars of religion, the town of Chevreuse, occupied by the partisans of princes de Lorraine, was attaquee by the royal troops, when Henri III, linking his forces has those of Henri de Navarre, put the seat in front of Paris. The city was invested and assiegee; the assassination made on the king preserved it rigours of which it had been menacee in the event of resistance, 1589. The following year, Henri IV, moving of Mantes Corbeil has, passed by Chevreuse; it favorably accomodated Anne de Cleves, widow of the duke of Own way, which was then in its castle of Dampierre. He wanted that the city and the castle of Chevreuse were respect as if they had never been rebellious. He left some garrison there, and the region was delivree undisciplined troops of the League.
In 1612 the duchy of Chevreuse was sets up in peerage in favour of Claude of Lorraine, wire puine of Henri de Guise the Gash. Claude married in 1622 the widow of the constable of Luynes, Marie de Rohan. This lady, well-known under the name of duchess of Chevreuse, is famous for its beauty, its attachment with the Anne queen of Austria, and by its spirit intrigant and adventurous, which did one of the adversaries of them more fear of Richelieu and Mazarin. Claude of Lorraine died in 1657 without leaving male children, and with him the title of peerage died out. Marie de Rohan gave up the duchy of Chevreuse has Louis-Charles of Albert, duke of Luynes, wire of the constable, its first husband. This lord, after having made homage for his duchy, gave it has his son Charles-Honours with Albert. It has this duke, son-in-law of Colbert, friend of Beauvillers and Fenelon, that Racine dedicated in 1669 its beautiful tragedy of Britannicus. This large poet had master key some time with the castle of Chevreuse in 1661. Louis XIV, wishing to increase the park of Versailles, proposed an exchange with the duke of Chevreuse in 1692. At this point in time was sets up the duchy of Chevreuse-Montfort, and that the news baronnie of Chevreuse, less wide than the first, was given by the king to the established community of the Ladies of Saint-Louis Saint-Cyr military school has.
Give up consequently, the castle of Chevreuse did not delay has to fall in ruins. Towards 1823 its various buildings were adapt with the needs for a farm. Since 1853 it belongs has Mr. the duke of Luynes and Chevreuse.
This castle, in spite of the mutilations and the transformations which it underwent, is still one of most interesting and most complete of the surroundings of Paris. It was composed of three parts:
- A rectangular keep of 17 bills of quantities out of 12 bills of quantities, appuye on 14 buttresses, bores dimension of the west of narrow windows in semicircular arch, which authorize has to make go up the date of its construction about the eleventh century. The openings of the east were increased at the fifteenth century. Old drawings prove that the walls of the keep rose all at least at the level of the current pinions, and that the roof in house was surmontee of a slim lantern.
- An irregular enclosure of 65 bills of quantities length on 45 of width, furnished with five round towers, three square towers and many buttresses. The face of north is beautiful and solid construction of the end of the fourteenth century, time of Pierre de Chevreuse.
- In the farmyard, formerly entouree of pits, one still notices the main door, and the vestiges of the antique vault of Holy-Marie-Magdeleine, opposite the large door, of the castle.
The walls and the turrets which protected the city remain partly, and make it possible to note successive enlargings. Dimension of the west, one finds, over a length of 100 bills of quantities, a wall of 2 bills of quantities thickness, built at the end of the fourteenth century with the help which the king Charles VI had grants to the inhabitants of Chevreuse.
The abbey of Saint-Saturnin, depend on the abbey of Bourgueil, occupied dimensions it southernmost court of the church. It was converted into simple prioress with the twelfth century. It had been so much ruinee by the wars of religion, which one reduced towards 1507 his vault has two spans taken in one of collateral of the old building, which included/understood six spans, and measured inside 35 bills of quantities on 15m, 60. The external door presents the characters and the ornaments of the architecture of transition from the twelfth century. One also notices with interest some of the vigorous capitals carve in the stone meuliere and crowning the columns has eight dimensions which separated the nave from the collateral ones.
The parish church, under the invocation of Martin saint, is contemporary of the prioress. She had much has to suffer from a violent one hurricane, who reversed the arrow of the bell-tower in 1308. The oldest parts are the bell-tower and the nave. The vaults of collateral and the chorus were rebuilt about 1614. Since ten years, important work of cleansing and interior restoration was made, thanks to the zeal and with the generosity of Mr. Delanoue, cure of the parish, Mr. Brouty, architect, and of Mr. de Coubertin, who has carries out paintings of the chorus.
The vault of Saint-Lubin, on the road of Paris, was rebuilt in 1845 on the site of an old vault close to the Leper-house.
The most remarkable house of the Chevreuse old man is the house of the Banners, street of Versailles, 14, close to the old door Grip-Wolf.
Among the outstanding characters born has Chevreuse, one must quote:
- Sailor Roy, sior of Gomberville, 1600-1674, member of the French Academy, poet and novelist.
- Antoine Pruneau, lawyer and writer of the eighteenth century.
- Pierre Prudhomme, surgeon, died in 1708.
- Montardier, 1747-1802, member of the legislative Body and the Council of the Five hundreds.
- Ambroise Gautier, lawyer, 1776-1829.
The variations are: Hautvilliers, Trottigny, Jagny, Breuil, Talou, the Mill of Scotland-Button (Escorche-Botun, in 1237), Poinpierre, Doinvilliers, Cross-of-Saint-Lubin.
Source: The canton of Chevreuse (twenty communes) by L. Morize 1869.
Crédit photo : S.Mobayen (Park of the Manor of Scotland-button, chevreuse)
Park of the Manor of Scotland-button, « Park of the Manor of Scotland-button » is a construction of the city of Chevreuse (France, Yvelines). Park of the Manor of Scotland-button, French Heritage monument to Chevreuse chevreuse, yvelines
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Description of this building by S.Mobayen :
ancien moulin du 18eme siecle,modifie en 1932.avec son parc greco-romain.
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